INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF A NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
Good indoor air quality improves productivity at the workplace. On the other hand, poor indoor air quality could lead to losses in productivity as a result of comfort problems, ill health and sickness-absenteeism. The aim of the study was to assess indoor air quality in various rooms of university buildings covering the offices, lecture theatre, laboratory or workshops and public restroom across eight faculties in a conventional university. Investigations were conducted at twenty-nine indoor locations in the main campus of University of Lagos. Noise level, PM2.5, PM10, relative humidity and temperature, CO, SO2, NOx, and the microbial quality (fungal and bacterial) were all determined. The microbial quality was determined using the sedimentation method (open petri dishes) containing different culture media for sample collection. Noise level ranged from 61.60 to 84.10 dBA. The noise level is quite high in almost all sampling points especially in the workshops, yet there was no significant difference (P>0.05) across all the indoor sampling points and the WHO limit.SO2 were mostly absence, however, the highest value of 0.4 ppm was recorded which was higher than recommended limit of 0.1 ppm.PM2.5 ranged between 4.0–25.0 µg/m3 and PM10 were between 8.0–47.0 µg/m3. Though, there was high variation in PM2.5 and PM10 across all the indoor sampling points, there were no significant difference (P>0.05). They were below the maximum limit of 150 µg/m3.The total fungi load ranged from 10.4 to 963 CFU/m3. There was generally higher number of fungi in the restroom than all the other indoor environments and they were significant in Faculty of social sciences. Fungi isolates include Aspergillus spp. (86.2%), unidentified mold (13.77%) and Sporothrix schenckii (0.03%). Total bacteria load ranged from 96.3 to 689 CFU/m3. The lowest load of bacteria (9.63 x 101 CFU/m3) was recorded in the dean’s office at the faculty of environmental science. The rest rooms have higher bacterial load (6.89 x 102 CFU/m3), which was higher than the recommended maximum limit of 500 CFU/m3. Identification from the colonies showed that about 55% were gram negative and 45% were gram negative cells. Morphological studies showed that cocci were also more predominant over the bacillary shape bacteria (55% versus 45%).
Adeniran, A.E., Nubi, A.T., and Adelopo, A.O. (2017). Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management. Waste Management, 67: 3–10
Agbagwa, O. and Onyemaechi, S.A. (2014). Microbiological quality of indoor air of a general hospital and a health centre in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(12): 424-431.
Alshuwaikhat, H.M., and Abubakar, I., 2008. An integrated approach to achieving campus sustainability: assessment of the current campus environmental management practices. Journal of Cleaner Production 16, 1777–1785
Augustowska, M. and Dutkiewicz, J. (2006). Variability of airborne microflora in a hospital ward within a period of one year. Annuals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13: 99–106
Brochu, P., Ducré-Robitaille, J.F., and Brodeur, J. (2006). Physiological daily inhalation rates for free-living individuals aged 1 month to 96 years, using data from doubly labeled water measurements: a proposal for air quality criteria, standard calculations and health risk assessment. Human Ecol Risk Assess., 12: 675-701.
Brooks, G.F., Butel, J.S. and Morse, S.A. (1998). Jawetz, Melnick, Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. 21st ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange. Pp. 832.
Cao, J.J., Lee, S.C., Chow, J.C., Cheng, Y., Ho, K.F., Fung, K., et al. (2005). Indoor/outdoor relationships for PM2.5 and associated carbonaceous pollutants at residential homes in Hong Kong—case study. Indoor Air, 15: 197–204.
Cheesbrough M. (1991). Medical laboratory manual for tropical countries. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: University Press Cambridge, Pp. 508–511.
Ezzati, M. and Kammen. D.M. (2001). Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on acute respiratory infections in developing countries. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(5): 481-488.
Fracchia, L., Pietronave, S., Rinaldi, M. and Martinotti, M. (2006). The assessment of airborne bacterial contamination in three composting plants revealed site-related biological hazard and seasonal variations. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100:973-84.
Franklin, P.J. (2007). Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health of Children. Pediatric Respiratory Reviews, 8(4): 281-2866.
Fung, F. and Hughson, W.G. (2003). Health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18(7): 535-544
Hayleeyesus, S.F., and Manaye, A.M. (2014). Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Libraries. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(1): S312-S317.
Ismail, S.H., Deros, M.B. and Leman, A.M. (2010). Indoor air quality issues for non-industrial workplace. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 5 (3): 235-244.
Jurado, S.R., Bankoff, A.D and Sanchez A. (2014). Indoor air quality in Brazilian Universities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11:7081-7093.
Jyotshna, M., and Helmut, B. (2011). Bioaerosols in Indoor Environment - A Review with Special Reference to Residential and Occupational Locations. The Open Envir. & Biol. Mon. J., 4: 83-96.
Klinmalee, A., Srimongkol, K., and Kim Oanh, N.T. (2009). Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment. Environ Monit Assess, 156: 581–594.
Kluytmans, J., Van-Belkum, A. and Verbrugh, H. (1997). Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clinical Microbiology Review, 10(3): 505-520.
Liu, Y., Chen, R., Shen, X., and Mao, X. (2004). Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP. Environ. Int, 30: 189–197.
Lou, X., Fang, Z. and Gong, C. (2012). Assessment of culturable airborne fungi in a university campus in Hangzhou, southeast China. African Journal of Microbiology Resource, 6(6): 1197-1205.
Molnar, P., Ballander, T., Sallsten, G., & Boman, J. (2007). Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 trace elements at homes, preschools, and schools in Stockholm, Sweden. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9: 348–357.
Njoku, K.L., Rumide, T.J., Akinola, M.O., Adesuyi, A.A., and Jolaoso, A.O. (2016). Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Metropolitan City of Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 20(1): 178-185.
Obanya, H.E., Amaeze, N.H., Togunde, O., and Otitoloju, A.A. (2018). Air Pollution Monitoring Around Residential and Transportation Sector Locations in Lagos Mainland. Journal of Health and Pollution, 8(19). https://doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-8.19.180903.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), (2011). Indoor Air Quality in Commercial and Institutional Buildings. U.S. Department of Labor.
Rajash B, Rattan LI. Essential of medical microbiology. 4th ed. New Delhi: Jayppe Brothers Medical Publishers; 2008, p. 415-439.
Rasool, N., Rampal, R.K and manhas, P. (2016). Assessment of noise level status in institutional areas of Samba Town. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(7): 887-889.
Soto, T., Murcia, RMG., Franco, A., Vicente-Soler, J., Cansado, J., and Gacto, M. (2009). Indoor airborne microbial load in a Spanish university (University of Murcia, Spain). Anales de Biologia, 31: 109-115.
Stryjakowska-Sekulsa, M., Piotraszewska-Pajak, A., Szyszka, A., Nowicki, M. and Filipiak, M. (2007). Microbiological quality of indoor air in university rooms. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16(4): 623-632.
Tse, A.C. and Oguama, A.C. (2014). Air quality in parts of the University of Port Harcourt, rivers state. Scientia Africana, 13: 120-137.
United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA (2006). Air Pollutants. Accessed on 20th April, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/airpollutants
Vlad, D.C., Popescu, R., Filimon, M.N., Gurban, C., Tutelca, A., Nica, D.V. and Dumitrascu, V. (2013). Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in public buildings: A case study (Timisoara, Romania). African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7 (19): 1957-1963.
WHO (2010). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office.WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: Selected pollutants. ISBN 978 92 890 0213 4.
World Health Organization - WHO (2009a). Guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization; 2009.
World Health Organization (2009b). Global Health Risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks, World Health Organization, Geneva.