MONITORING PROGRAM OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES EFFECTS IN TOURIST ZONES
When developing a monitoring system of alternative energy sources (AES) in tourist zones the environmental, social, economic and positive or negative impacts should be taken into account. The implementation of such types of renewable energy sources as wind, solar and small hydro power plants is reasonable. The possible positive and negative environmental impacts of existing AES are forecasted. The main criterion for choosing the territory for tourism is environmental security, but it is necessary to take into account the socio-economic situation in the area, the satisfaction with life of local residents, etc., as they have an indirect impact on the development of tourism and recreation in the region. The main objects affected by the operation of alternative energy sources are identified: climate, surface water and groundwater, geology and soils, landscapes and biodiversity, population and socio-economic situation, cultural heritage. The factors that should be taken into account in determining the impacts associated with each scenario of renewable energy development are defined.
The main stages of developing the impact monitoring system of AES on the tourist environment are proposed. These include defining: the present and future baseline conditions of the affected area; values, vulnerabilities and sensitivities of the affected objects (a point scale of sensitivity assessment); impact types that the affected object will be subjected to by each alternative (a score criteria evaluation, impact monitoring program); determining whether each impact is direct or indirect, far-reaching, cumulative, or caused by further development; determining the level of impact probability; stages of impact development (construction, operation or decommissioning), impact duration and frequency; irreversibility/reversibility and/or temporality/permanence of impact; impact intensity; spatial coverage of impact and its cross-border nature; determining whether the impact is positive or negative; the formulation of assumptions, restrictions and uncertainty factors associated with the evaluation; using all of the above mentioned information for the impact monitoring system of AES.
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