ECOSYSTEM SERVICES - ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF CONCEPT
In Ukraine, the topic of ecosystem services is new, and the definition of ecosystem services remains largely debatable. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of international and domestic experience in the definition of "ecosystem services" in order to further regulate the regulatory environment, to substantiate complex methods and systematic practices of economic assessment of ecosystem services.
According to the existing ecosystem services classification proposed in the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Program (2005), services provided by ecosystems can fall into one of four broad categories, which to some extent coincide with the functions of natural capital and include: providing, regulating and cultural services that directly affect people, and support services necessary to preserve other services. " The definitions used in the scientific literature to characterize particular aspects of ecosystem services, in particular ecosystem processes, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, benefits, and investments in ecosystem services, are discussed in the article. The scheme of conceptual relations between key terms is presented.
As a result of the analysis of the literature, acceptable principles for the evaluation of ecosystem services and the classification of ecosystem services are substantiated. Ecosystem services include: providing services, that is, benefits that ecosystems provide (food, fresh water, wood, genetic resources, biochemical compounds, etc.); regulatory services, that is, benefits derived from the regulation of ecosystem processes (eg climate regulation, water management, water treatment, etc.); cultural services, ie intangible benefits that people receive from ecosystems (spiritual and religious, aesthetic, educational services, recreation and ecotourism, cultural heritage, etc.); as well as the support services required to preserve and operate all other ecosystem services (eg soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, water cycle).
Research findings can be used to scientifically justify assessments of ecosystem services in Ukraine with a view to further implementing European environmental law.
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