Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas en-US Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources 2415-3184 THE CHANGE OF OIL QUANTITY AND DYNAMICS OF SOIL PHYTOTOXICITY AT THE OIL POLLUTION <p>The authors of the article study the regularities of oil quantity change and dynamics of soil phytotoxicity at the oil pollution. The article describes the sequence of study of changes in the amount of pollutant (oil) in the soil. The study was carried out in modeling, laboratory and micro-field experiments. Two types of soils (black soil and turf podzolic soil) were used in the studies. The experiments were carried out in at least three biological and three analytical repetitions. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using Microsoft Office Excel software package.</p> <p>The investigation of evaporation of oil from the soil (when the initial concentration of oil in the soil was 10% and the initial moisture of the soil was 20%) shows that the intense evaporation of the liquid composition (oil+water) occurs within the first 12 days and the intensity of evaporation from black soil is higher than from turf podzolic soil.</p> <p>The phytotoxicity of oil contaminated turf podzolic and black soils, at different humidity, in the process of natural weathering of oil was determined using such plant test objects as L. usitatissimum, H. annuus, F. vulgare. The significant decrease of phytotoxicity, more than twofold compared with the initial one, lasts up to 45 days. After the 45th day further reduction of phytotoxicity is not observed. After the 45th day even the insignificant growth of phytotoxicity is observed. Obviously, this growth happens due to the formation of more toxic derivatives of oil in the process of natural oxidation.</p> <p>It is proved that under natural conditions within the first days there is an intense evaporation of volatile components of oil, which lasts for 45 days in average. At the same time, from 25% to 50% of oil is weathered from the soil depending on its type and the toxicity decreases by 2 approximately. Oil pollution spreads through the profile of the soil and in 6 months, at an initial contamination of 10%, it is observed at a depth of 30-40 cm. The least contaminated is the layer of soil at a depth of 10-20 cm. Therefore, the rehabilitation of soils by phytotherapeutic methods should be carried out 45 days after the pollution, and herbs should be planted at a depth of 10-20 cm.</p> O. I. Romaniuk L. Z. Shevchyk T. V. Zhak Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 2(18) 7 14 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-7-14 THE DETERMINATION OF LOCAL CHANGES IN THE SUPPORTING ECOSYSTEM SERVICE OF SOIL ON THE TERRITORY OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION <p>The temporary withdrawal of agricultural land for the construction or overhaul of wells and pipelines laying is, in essence, an interference with the natural soil-forming process, the result of which is a change in the implementation of the ecosystem functions of the soil and, consequently, ecosystem services of the soil.</p> <p>The article analyses the influence of industrial activity and soils reclamation on the implementation of the supporting ecosystem service of soil. Such indicators as agrophysical, physico-chemical, chemical indices of soil, species composition, trophic structure and the state of the indicator groups of the invertebrates (rainworms, enchitrides, larvae of elaterids), the number of the microorganisms of the main ecofunctional and taxonomic groups (bacteria that absorb organic and mineral nitrogen, actinomycetes, microscopic fungi, oligotrophic bacteria), enzymatic activity and soil toxicity were selected as indicators of anthropogenic change. Four soil samples were taken at each experimental and background site for the reckoning of mesofauna (50×50×30 cm). Thus, 1 m² of land was surveyed on each experimental area. The final evaluation of the soil condition at different points was carried out using the integral index of the biological state of the soil (IIBS).</p> <p>Following the research of the agro-ecological state of the soil on the territory of two rehabilitated sites of oil and gas production wells local changes in the supporting ecosystem service are defined within the spread of gray forest soil. It is established that the general unfavorable property of background and recultivated soils is high density indices. Unfavorable agrophysical properties determine the differentiation of the parameters of the analyzed indicators of the supporting ecosystem service of soil. The article proves the expediency of using the complex of the most informative biological indicators to assess the quality of reclamation and the state of reclaimed soils.</p> O. M. Drozd M. Yu. Zhuravel O. Ye. Naidionova I. P. Lezhenina N. Yu. Polchaninova Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 2(18) 15 25 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-15-25 WATER- POWER RESOURCES OF A MOUNTAIN RIVER: <p>Rational choice of the location of the water-electro power stations is associated with the availability of information on the distribution of gross power along the river bed. In mountainous conditions, while determining this value, it is advisable to rely on the general principles of the division of the profile of the river bed into the sections of constant slope. This work is the study of the formation of the hydropower potential of the stream in the area of the mountain river. Its purpose is to establish a connection between the hydropower potential and the hydrological as well as morphometric parameters of the river bed.</p> <p>The article solves the task of finding a model for describing the process of gross power increase during the downstream water flow at the section with the inflow available. The analytical relations between the gross potential power value and the generally accepted parameters of the water flow (flow volume and bed profile) are established. With an inflow available, the distance between the location of the inflow mouth and the beginning of the section as well as inflow width are also taken into consideration. A linear approximation is used to describe the slope of a section. The functional dependence of power on the flow volume, on the difference in the heights of the bed within the section, on inflow volume and on the height mark of its mouth, on the position of the inflow mouth relative to the beginning of the section is substantiated. The article establishes the correlations that give the possibility to determine of the power distribution along the section.</p> <p>The authors suggest the model and the method of calculating the gross potential power of the water flow on the section of the river bed for a case when the inflow is available. The basis of the methodology is the description of the flow volume growth in the bed downstream the river. This description is combined with linear and reverse trigonometric functions.</p> <p>The distribution of gross potential capacity at the section of the Bukovyna Carpathians – the Siret River is calculated. The correlation of both exact analytical and approximate solutions is used. The paper shows the practical identity in the values of the power of the flow, obtained on their basis. The authors made a conclusion about the adequacy of the received distribution of the physical model of downstream power increase, both above and below the inflow entry point.</p> <p>The practical value of the approach to determining the potential gross flow capacity of water lies in its heuristic component.</p> V. H. Sinchenko A. M. Nykolaiev Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 2(18) 26 37 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-26-37 ADAPTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE PROCESSES OF DENDROLOGICAL OBJECTS UNDER OIL CONTAMINATION CONDITIONS <p>The authors investigate the adaptive and destructive reactions of tree plants in response to oil pollution of the environment. The article states the decrease of vitality of the investigated plants according to a suite of metrics on cellular, organ, organism and population levels of the biosystem organization. Vegetative organs size reduction, asymmetry and necrotic damage of leaf blades, reduction of water saturation and increase of ash-content of dry material of tree leaves are revealed. The authors highlight the deterioration of the buffer system of the leaves protoplast as the cells that are the most sensitive to changes in the internal and external environment of plants organs.</p> <p>Premature defoliation and colour change of tree crowns are the signs of organism aging which is the consequence of contamination, free radical processes. Based on the set of vitality parameters the tree species are placed in the row in accordance with the decrease of their stability: walnut → common sea buckthorn→ drooping birch → big-leaf linden → Norway maple→ little-leaved linden → ordinary horse chestnut.</p> <p>The Norway maple, big-leaf linden, little-leaved linden, ordinary horse chestnut should be used in the phytoindicative studies of technologically transformed ecosystems. In the oil-polluted environment the destructive processes in the organisms of these species dominate over the adaptive ones. It is proved by the presence of pests and tree plants diseases caused by them. The protective mechanisms of the above mentioned plants, depleted in long-term stresses are unable to counter parasites, therefore the species cannot perform an environment-cultivative function effectively.</p> <p>Walnut, drooping birch, common sea buckthorn are well adapted to stressful conditions of growth and are recommended for the amenity planting at the oil-contaminated areas in order to reclaim them. These tree species have such adaptive features as relative stability of the buffer system of assimilation organs cells, low level of necrosis, protection against metals and other pollutants.</p> N. Glibovytska Kh. Karavanovych Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-11-22 2018-11-22 2(18) 38 43 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-38-43 THE EVALUATION OF VISUAL INFLUENCES ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF IVANO-FRANKIVSK CITY <p>The article deals with the problems of urban systems visual contamination which is connected with the issues of noise and electromagnetic loading, waste utilization and storage, water resources pollution, and which depends entirely on the environmental situation within the cities. The paper analyzes Ukrainian and foreign publications on the factors of visual evaluation, particularly the calculation of the coefficient of videoecological susceptibility of the territory, the statistical analysis of visual pollution estimation based on the poll of the respondents who are exposed to negative visual impact. The authors reveal that in Ukraine there are no normative documents which regulate the procedure for the estimation of visual contamination. The article presents the main drawbacks and unresolved parts of the general problem of visual impact evaluation.</p> <p>The authors of the publication suggest a generalized method for conducting a visual evaluation of urban areas. The results of the estimation are presented using the urban system Ivano-Frankivsk as the example. The main stages of the evaluation of visual influences are highlighted. These stages are the city zoning according to the presence and types of dominant visual objects, the clarification of the list of those criteria which are necessary to evaluate the quality of the visual environment, the choice of the optimal solution concerning the evaluation procedure and regarding the selection of the appropriate number of points on the urban system territory, and, finally, carrying out the evaluation itself in accordance with thirty criteria.&nbsp; The authors of the publication substantiate visual evaluation procedure based on the suggested method together with some elements of the method of multi-criteria analysis. Using the results of the evaluation, the authors construct the map of visual influences and carry out a complex spatial analysis of the visual fields of Ivano-Frankivsk. The article solves the problem of comprehensive evaluation of the ecological situation of urbanized systems and living conditions of the population, taking into account the evaluation of the visual environment quality.</p> T. V. Kundelska M. T. Mykytsei Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 2(18) 44 51 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-44-51 FACTORS OF SPATIAL CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION OF UKRAINE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS <p>The article substantiates the use of renewable energy sources in the sustainable tourism development of the region. Sustainable development of tourism in the Carpathian region is considered taking into account the energy and environmental impact of the traditional Ukrainian energy sources. The developed approach combines the economic profits of the tourism industry with the benefits of society since it takes into account the ecological situation and provides measures for its improvement.</p> <p>It is determined that selecting areas that are suitable for renewable energy consuming projects should consist of three stages: selecting potentially suitable areas, considering exclusion criteria, and an in-depth assessing potential sites or territories. The factors determining spatial constraints and providing essential resources for the construction of wind and solar power plants and small hydropower plants are defined, with the parameters of sustainable tourism development of the Carpathian region in view. Factors that are common to different types of power plants are as follows: availability of wind, solar or hydrological resources, local topography and existing obstacles, accessible terrain, available infrastructure, network service access point, soil properties and composition, the proximity of inhabited areas, surface openness and steepness of slope, environmental constraints, land tenure analysis, proximity of protected nature and landscape areas.</p> <p>Based on these studies, the GIS map of the Carpathian region is compiled showing the spatial distribution of the solar potential on a horizontal surface. Solar radiation varies with the height, steepness of the mountain slopes and other meso and micro factors, but over the examined territory the annual insolation is not less than 1000 kW/m<sup>2</sup>. The work contains recommendations related to the use of solar energy as the innovation of the tourist infrastructure; they aim at the further developing of major tourist centres and isolated settlements in the Carpathian region.</p> O. Mandryk L. Arkhypova O. Pobigun N. Latsyk Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-06 2018-12-06 2(18) 52 60 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-52-60 A STEPPED HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FOLLOWING MILITARY ACTIONS <p>Military activities resulting in chemical pollution of the environment could produce a long-term impact on human health, whereas under certain conditions even ultra-low concentrations of some substances might provoke cancer, without noticeable toxic effect. According to modern views on carcinogenesis, the effect of carcinogens on human health does not have a threshold level of concentration. With the current deplorable state of the environment and an urgent need to improve it in view, we argue that there is a critical need for the mechanism that could assess the real state of the environment and would be instrumental for optimal decision-making process aimed at reducing environmental costs.</p> <p>The paper reports a case-study and exemplifies that a stepped health risk assessment is appropriate and helpful in case of environmental pollution following military actions. It also highlights the results of the risk assessment for life of the population living in the vicinity of hostilities. The results of the possible risk calculations concerning the damage non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic compounds could cause to the people living in the vicinity of hostilities were obtained in stages; the simple Monte Carlo error propagation methods and the two-dimensional Monte Carlo procedure were used to estimate the probability of different outcomes due to the intervention of random variables. It is shown that, in comparison with the simple Monte Carlo error propagation methods, the two-dimensional Monte Carlo procedure for estimating the probability of different outcomes provides additional information for the decision-making process, concerning either taking some specific measures or not.</p> <p>The findings of the study are the following: the assessment and subsequent analysis of environmental risk provide much more relevant information for taking an environmental decision, as compared to the threshold concentration methodology. The risk assessment should be carried out in stages, starting from simple (deterministic) to more complex ones (first the simple Monte Carlo error propagation methods, and later, two-dimensional Monte Carlo method), whenever there arise any of the following needs: if it is necessary to establish priorities among the areas, polluters, pollutants, pollutant transfer routes, categories of population and other risk factors; if resources for environmental conservation are limited; if mistaken decisions could generate destructive results; if there is a lack of information necessary to take a competent decision.</p> S. M. Orel O. V. Ivashchenko Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 2(18) 61 72 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-61-72 TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR DECREASING NOX EMISSIONS AT COAL THERMAL ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS <p>Most power-generating units at the Ukrainian thermal electric power stations were designed to burn hard coal mined in Ukraine, but today due to physical depreciation of the stations, those units are in non-project manoeuvring peaking operation what leads to the increase in both the specific fuel equivalent consumption and in harmful environmental emissions.</p> <p>The purpose of the research is to develop recommendations on the selection of optimal technical solutions aimed at reducing NOx emissions of oxides at the operating boilers of Burshtyn thermal electric power stations (TEPS) under the conditions of regime-technological measures.</p> <p>The article analyzes the main approaches to developing and selecting technological methods aimed at reducing emissions of coal thermal power stations and identifies prospects for their work in accordance with modern environmental requirements.&nbsp; The mechanisms of the transformations the organic fuel bound nitrogen undergoes when heated are determined. To reduce the amount of NOx emissions in combustion products, it is offered to apply the regime-technological mode of the preliminary heating the pulverized coal mixture. The results of thermo chemical studies of coal samples used at Burshtyn TEPS are presented. The temperature ranges are determined at which the maximum emissions of volatile combustible compounds takes place before to the upper flammability limit of the pulverized coal mixture is reached.</p> <p>It was determined that under the conditions of actual burning process, there is a clear sequence: a release of volatile components and burning of the coke residue; heating of the pulverized coal mixture; emission of volatile combustible compounds; their burning; heating of the coke residue up to initiation of its combustion; the coke residue burning-out. A pulverized coal stream is brought into the furnace without being preliminary mixed up with air. While burning the pulverized coal stream, fuel particles are heated and degassed in the zone immediately adjacent to the burner section where there is a shortage of oxygen, whereas the oxygen concentration in the flow is a gradually increasing.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The regime-technological measures that are aimed at inhibiting NOx oxides formation by preliminary heat treatment of the pulverized coal mixture; they make it possible to obtain the maximum emissions of volatile combustible compounds before the upper flammability limit of the pulverized coal mixture is reached. It was found out that heat treatment should be carried out at temperature from 540-580°&nbsp;C. This is the temperatures range when the maximum emission of volatile combustible compounds takes place. After this combustion occur in an environment that is practically devoid of oxygen, where competing reactions of formation of volatile components and molecular nitrogen occur simultaneously. Thereafter, combustion can proceed in the practically oxygen-free environment with competing parallel reactions the forming volatile components and molecular nitrogen. This method allows to almost halving the concentration of nitrogen oxides in flue gases.</p> H. V. Koshlak A. M. Pavlenko Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-08-27 2018-08-27 2(18) 73 82 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-73-82 ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: METHODS OF DECISION MAKING <p>The paper discusses decision-making methods for the comparative assessment of alternatives in environmental impact assessment. The suggested framework for a systematic approach to the comparative assessment of alternatives in decision-making management involves multi-criteria utility theory; analytical hierarchy approach; multi-criteria alternatives ranking; and choice under uncertainty. The proposed decision-making methods mainly concern comparing alternatives and selecting the best one. Considerably often, criteria for evaluating alternatives are contradictory or use different methods and rating scales, which is the main problem for solving multi-criteria problems. The article also considers the steps for generation and analysis of alternatives and suggests the alternatives analysis procedure.</p> <p>The author’s experience proves that experts sometimes fail to provide a preferred alternative that would meet all conditions of multi-criteria analysis; therefore, it is necessary to return to the previous stage of the environmental impact assessment process, i.e. reducing negative impacts. All this brings out the need to develop a new scientific basis, to generate a new set of alternative environmental protection proposals, and to carry out the procedure for selecting the preferred alternative from the outset. After the preferred alternative, in compliance with all environmental protection needs, is selected, and the agreement on the best alternative is reached, experts can undertake a comprehensive environmental impact assessing.&nbsp;</p> <p>The author suggests methods for the comparative assessment of the preferred alternative in environmental impact assessment, each having its merits and demerits and critically examines them in the article. The suggested procedure provides experts’ with decision-making methods of the comparative assessing alternatives in environmental impact assessment.</p> Ya. O. Adamenko Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-11-29 2018-11-29 2(18) 83 93 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-83-93 IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN UKRAINE: <p>The National Ecological Center of Ukraine examined the effectiveness of the implementation of the Law of Ukraine “On Environmental Impact Assessment” (dated May 23, 2017 No. 2059-VII) and the by-laws adopted for its implementation. Based on the study, some shortcomings of the Law were named and discussed as wee as ways for their elimination were established. It was shown that a number of articles of the Law should be clarified, and the title of the Law needs compliance with its scope, terminology, and the lists of activities subject to impact assessment. There is also a need to clarify the division of powers and to adopt regulations on organizational support for conducting an environmental impact assessment and public discussion. There is an urgent need to further refine and harmonize the regulatory and methodological framework of the Law with European environmental legislation, in particular, environmental quality standards and relevant methodologies for their definition. Since no provisions have so far been adopted on expert commissions for environmental impact assessment, and the territorial environmental protection authorities are still subject to regional administrations, there is a real threat that the latter can exert pressure to get a customized conclusion. It was noted that there is no relevant procedure for selecting experts of professional and qualitative environmental impact assessment; there is also no mechanism for adding the public to the formation of the register and selection of experts, and financial issues are not fully resolved either. It was highlighted: the main directions for improving environmental impact assessment and organizing the Law revision. Several other urgencies were indicated: to accelerate the modernization of state building norms and other regulations; to withdraw territorial environmental protection departments from the subordination of regional state administrations; to provide a transparent procedure for the appointment of members to the expert commissions, to urgently review environmental indicators, classifications, norms, limits and other restrictive requirements and harmonize them to European standards.</p> V. V. Sharavara O. A. Bondarenko O. H. Tarasova R. B. Gavrilyuk D. V. Hulevets S. A. Savchenko Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 2(18) 94 106 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-94-106 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF AMBER PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE <p>Among the environmental consequences of the illegal production of amber, the experts single out the degradation of zonal soils and underlying bed rocks, destruction of fertile humus and eluvial horizons of podzolic soils, root systems of trees, swamp formation, change in groundwater levels, destruction of forest resources, and change in the migration processes of the region’s fauna. The most serious ecological and economic problems are caused by the unauthorized production of amber in Rivne, Volyn and Zhytomyr oblasts, where the illegal production of amber is carried out by open-pit and hydromechanical methods.</p> <p>The main tasks set forth in the article are: to analyze the places and conditions of amber production, to define its influence on the environment components, to identify the objects of natural resources use by means of Earth remote sensing methods.</p> <p>The article deals with the development of modern information technology for identifying the places and consequences of amber production in the western regions of Polissia based on the methods of satellite environmental monitoring and tools of geoinformation systems. The production technologies and the manifestation of their ecological impacts are described. The environmental impact assessment of amber production is not possible without defining the potential operational risks, identifying the locations and extent of environmental damage. Due to local peculiarities of amber production management, it is rather difficult to fix the topographic and geodetic parameters of the manifestations of these effects, which complicates the planning of prevention and elimination measures. The methods of Earth remote sensing (ERS) from space and geoinformation systems (GIS) can define these parameters with high accuracy, reliability and efficiency, which will enable the efficient monitoring of the environmental components degradation.</p> H. Ya. Krasovskyi V. O. Shumeiko T. O. Klochko N. I. Sementsova Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 2(18) 107 117 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-107-117 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOBILE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM <p>The article deals with the development of the mobile environmental monitoring system and the peculiarities of algorithm design using aerospace technologies. The authors have proposed the methodology for designing the ecological risk zones based on the ranking methods of ecological indexes with the multi-criteria environmental safety assessment of the ecosystem, based on the use of multispectral characteristics of the space image. The methodology for defining the ecological risk zones has been proposed, which is based on the ranking methods of ecological indexes using one of cluster analysis tools – the hierarchy analysis method.</p> <p>The proposed approach can be efficiently used to define the ecological risk zones, choose the ways of the ecological rehabilitation of damaged areas and construct the prospective ecologically clean and safe regions. The proposed methodology for synthesizing the ecological risk zone based on the multi-criteria selection has been studied on the example of defining the most dangerous zone after the environmental monitoring.</p> <p>The article proposes the research and methodological basis, which helps to define the ecological risk zones directly based on the set of ecological indexes and turning the criteria into the complex (scalar) index. The prospective to develop the proposed approach is to improve it so that it could take into account the instability and stochasticity of the ecosystems under consideration. The authors have proposed to assess the risk of threats to the ecological, natural and technogenic safety of the regions. The intensity of emergencies has been statistically estimated in the article. The probabilities of the threatening environmental situation and safety functions of the considered ecological risk zone have been defined.</p> <p>The approach, considered in this article, will help to improve the efficiency of managerial decisions on ensuring the environmental safety, to find the best compromise between the contradictory quality indexes of system operation, to select and substantiate the priority directions for the development of complex ecosystems.</p> <p>The article provides the necessary research and practical recommendations for applying the mobile system of aerospace environmental monitoring.</p> V. M. Trysniuk V. O. Okhariev T. V. Trysniuk K. V. Smetanin Yu. M. Holovan Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-07 2018-12-07 2(18) 118 125 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-118-125 PRINCIPLES OF INSTALLING LOCAL MONITORING POINTS OF THE GROUND AND SURFACE WATER AT OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SITES <p>The article considers the principles for the spatial layout of local monitoring points of the hydrosphere state on the territory of oil and gas production enterprises. The general conceptual approaches to the development of monitoring network have been defined with account of the specifics of oil and gas production facilities that are viewed as pollution sources of the underground and surface water. The selection and location criteria for the monitoring points have been developed, which have been classified into such categories as water supply wells, water pits, tapping springs, monitoring wells and surface water objects.</p> <p>The author has proved that the key basis for installing the water monitoring points is the digital terrain model, which serves the basis for defining not only the structure of surface water runoff, but also the water flow course of shallow unconfined groundwater. The algorithm for developing the digital terrain model and for modeling the borders of water catchment areas on the selected sections by means of geoinformation technologies has been provided.</p> <p>The author of the article has analyzed the principles of installing the monitoring wells, based on the directions and filtration parameters of the phreatic aquifer. However, their main task should be the quick interception of contaminated water at the operation sites of oil and gas production facilities. Therefore, the number of monitoring wells depends on the number of such objects (or areas of their concentration) on the oil and gas field. In the absence of hydrogeological data on the plane structure of the groundwater surface levels, it is appropriate to use the model of water runoff to define the water flow course, at least in the landscape conditions of the Eastern oil and gas basin in Left-Bank Ukraine. To define the layout of the surface water quality monitoring points, the most effective tools are to develop the digital terrain model and to model the borders of water catchment areas on the selected sections by means of modern geoinformation technologies.</p> <p>The article includes the approaches to the installation of local network monitoring points of the underground and surface water, which can be also applied to the estimation procedure of the environmental impact of both oil and gas deposits in general and separate oil and gas facilities.</p> D. V. Diadin Copyright (c) 2018 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 2(18) 126 137 10.31471/2415-3184-2018-2(18)-126-137 ВЕРХОВИНСЬКИЙ МЕТЕОРИТ <p>1 грудня 2018 року приблизно о 23 годині над присілком села Замагора Верховинського району Івано-Франківської області після блискавичного, яскравого спалаху, гучного, потужного удару по даху господарської споруди (відкритий навіс для автомобіля) місцевого ґазди пана Богдана Генсецького в покрівлі були зруйновані (вибиті) декілька дерев’яних покрівельних гонт. В даховому покритті утворився квадратний отвір , а невідомий розпечений до червоного предмет, який влетів в будівлю, зіткнувшись з дерев’яною підлогою, миттєво її підпалив.</p> <p>Координати точки падіння 48.103881°, сх.&nbsp;д. та 24.810817° пн.&nbsp;ш.</p> <p>Переляканий господар садиби, пан Богдан Генсецький, який порався неподалік, загасив полум’я снігом, а потім лопатою викинув на подвір’я у снігову кучугуру розпечену каменюку, призвідника займання підлоги. Температура каменя (як видавалося на перший погляд) була такою високою, що він ще близько 3-4-х годин охолоджувався та “шкварчав” у снігу.</p> <p>Так драматично у нашому краї з’явився прибулець із Космосу – Верховинський метеорит овальної форми, візуально оплавлений, з параметрами, як згодом з’ясували вчені ІФНТУНГ, 167×138×69 мм (довжина×ширина×товщина), вагою 2396 грам, об’ємом 649 см³, густиною 3,692 г/см³, немагнітний, радіація 11 мікрорентген за годину, тобто фон нашого регіону.</p> Олег Максимович Адаменко Алла Пасс Іван Ковбанюк Роман Дутчак Денис Зорін Микола Ногач Copyright (c) 2019 Environmental safety and sustainable resources management 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 2(18) 138 142