CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF DRILLING SOLUTIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON PLANTS
Keywords:drilling fluids, plants, oil pollution, environment, biological remediation, ecosystem
The environmental pollution by drilling fluids, used in oil and gas wells operation, is described. The biological and technical methods of maintaining the environmental safety during oil production and preventing the emission of pollutants into the environment are highlighted. The influence of toxic drilling fluids solutions on the functioning of biotic and abiotic blocks of the ecosystems is analyzed. The composition and types of drilling fluids are described, their classification according to the level of environmental hazard is provided. The polymer-potassium drilling fluid has the greatest toxic effect on ecosystems, and the clay type of drilling fluid has the least adverse effect on the environment. Sodium, calcium and chloride salts, which cause the salinization of edaphotopes, are among the most dangerous components of drilling fluids. Soil salinization disrupts the water regime of plants, which leads to the vegetative organs necrosis, increase in water transpiration, deterioration of photosynthetic processes, decrease in the formation of organic compounds and respiration, premature death of phyto-organisms. Getting into the soil, calcium and sodium hydroxides, as the components of drilling fluids, cause the increase in the soil solution alkalinity, which inhibits the growth and development of plants. The extensive adaptive capabilities of some plants under the influence of drilling fluids components are established. Under the conditions of excessive salinization of edaphotopes, halophytes are well adapted to the stressful growth conditions due to their special metabolic and structural features. Oil, which is included in drilling fluids in small concentrations, accumulates over time in the environment and causes destructive changes in living systems by blocking the enzymatic activity in cells, slowing down the growth processes, causing the predominance of catabolic processes over the anabolic ones. To combat environmental pollution by petroleum products and drilling fluids during the development of oil fields, it is advisable to combine technical and biological methods. Studying the remediation properties of plant organisms in the conditions of oil pollution is an urgent task for the modern practical ecology.
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