PROSPECTS OF ENERGY USE OF BIOMASS IN UKRAINE
Keywords:RES energy balance, emission reductions, biomass, biofuels, methods of biomass conversion, barriers to bioenergy development, heat and electricity generation, sustainable development
The article analyzes the state of production and use of energy resources in the world, as well as current trends and forecasts of energy use from renewable sources in total final energy consumption. The definition and classification of bioresources depending on their origin is offered and their qualitative characteristics are analyzed. Legislative norms and documents related to the development of fuel and energy sectors and prospects for the development of RES in Ukraine.
It is determined that the main problems that hinder the development of bioenergy are the need for biomass conversion, complexity and energy intensity of biofuel production technologies, unformed raw material base, inconsistent raw material composition and lack of guarantees for stable supply of raw materials. Based on the analysis of biomass conversion methods, a classification of the main types of energy processes related to biomass processing is proposed. The analysis of biomass conversion technologies allowed us to conclude that at this stage the technologies of thermochemical conversion of direct biomass combustion are actively developing due to the simplicity of technology and low energy consumption.
The analysis of the dynamics of RES capacity growth in Ukraine allowed us to conclude that Ukraine has all the prerequisites for intensive development, production and use of non-traditional energy sources. This is facilitated by promising bioresources for electricity and heat generation technologies, it is substantiated that bioenergy has the potential to become one of the main strategic resources for improving energy and environmental security of the country.
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