ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF TERRITORIES OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS: DEFINITIONS, MECHANISMS, AND PROBLEMS
The article summarizes and systematizes the mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of the territories of different tourism destinations in Ukraine. The relevant studies in this area refer to the development of theoretical foundations for ensuring sustainability of the territories of tourism destinations and some publications deal with the assessment of the volume of resource usage (primarily land resources in tourism activities). There are no generalized conclusions regarding the peculiarities of the application of the available mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of the territories of tourism destinations. The article analyzes the main environmental problems of the development of the tourism infrastructure and tourism industry in general, which makes it necessary to substantiate the set of mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism territories. Furthermore, it systematizes the regulatory, economic, control, and voluntary mechanisms, the utilization of which will ensure environmental safety of tourism destinations. The regulatory mechanisms make it possible to reduce the impacts of tourism activities on various destinations by establishing and regulating the throughput capacity potential of a territory, as well as by setting the limits and boundaries for the activities of the enterprises providing tourism services, with the help of the procedure of assessing the impacts of tourism activities on the environment and monitoring of the state of the environment and sustainability of territories. The economic mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations include the following: financial stimulation of tourism entities, financial support of the projects aimed at implementing of eco-projects in tourism, balanced tax policy, and procedures for subsidizing of balanced tourism projects. The main control mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations consist in the implementation of the actions to control the activities of tourism entities based on their compliance with environmental legislation. The major voluntary mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations include the following: introduction of environmental management into the general management structure and training of tourists and local residents. Summing up what has been said, the usage of the set of mechanisms will ensure environmental safety of the territories of tourism destinations.