ANALYSING SYSTEM OF THE WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE
Keywords:відходи електричного та електронного обладнання, електронні відходи, навколишнє середовище, поводження з відходами, утилізація електронних відходів, пункт прийому електронних та електричних відходів
The article analyzes the state of the waste management system of electrical and electronic equipment in Ukraine. The involved WEEE in Ukraine is assessed by analyzing the electronics market and statistics on waste generation in the industrial and commercial sectors. The main component of WEEE in Ukraine is plastic (30%), as well as medium (20%) and iron (8%). That in Ukraine about 28 thousand tons of WEEE are created (technological equipment - 60%, accumulators and batteries - 21%, household and office appliances - 13%, components of electrical equipment - 4%, fluorescent lamps - 2%.). According to these data, they are underestimated due to the lack of a WEEE monitoring system in the constructed sector. 128 Ukrainian enterprises can collect certain types of WEEE that contain hazardous compounds (batteries, fluorescent lamps, etc.). 22 of them are licensed to use this waste. All other WEEE is not covered. 2 oblasts do not have any enterprises that could add to the management of WEEE. Existing businesses cannot recycle the right people to reach the waste that has already accumulated and will continue to increase. Thus, Ukraine needs the adoption of relevant legislation at the national level, the creation of WEEE reception points, assistance and control over the treatment of WEEE enterprises, as well as the creation of an effective system for monitoring WEEE flows. It is necessary to inform the population about the WEEE school for the environment and further and about human health. Carry out a campaign to promote separate collection of content and the need to separate electrical appliances from solid waste.
Bigum M., Petersen C., Christensen T., Scheutz C., WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste, Waste Management, vol. 33(11), pp 2372-2380, 2013.
Salhofer S., Tesar M., Assessment of removal of components containing hazardous substances from small WEEE in Austria, Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 186(2-3), pp 1481-1488, 2011.
Oguchi M., Sakanakura H., Terazono A., Toxic metals in WEEE: Characterization and substance flow analysis in waste treatment processes, Science of the total environment, vol. 463, pp 1124-1132, 2013.
Ishchenko V., Pohrebennyk V., Borowik B., Falat P., Shaikhanova A., Toxic substances in hazardous household waste, Proceedings of International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference SGEM 2018, vol. 18(4.2), pp 223-230, 2018.
Ishchenko V., Vasylkivskyi I., Environmental Pollution with Heavy Metals: Case Study of the Household Waste. In Sustainable Production: Novel Trends in Energy, Environment and Material Systems, Springer, pp 161-175, 2020.
Lee D., Offenhuber D., Duarte F., Biderman A., Ratti C., Monitour: Tracking global routes of electronic waste, Waste Management, vol. 72, pp 362-370, 2018.
Dimitrakakis E., Janz A., Bilitewski B., Gidarakos E., Small WEEE: Determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics, Journal of Hazardous Materials, USA, vol. 161/issue 2-3, pp 913-919, 2009.
Balde C.P., Wang F., Kuehr R., Huisman J., The global e-waste monitor: quantities, flows and resources, Germany, 2014.
Robinson B.H., E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408(2), pp 183-191, 2009.
Lu C., Zhang L., Zhong Y., Ren W., Tobias M., Mu Z., Xue B., An overview of
e-waste management in China. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management,
vol. 17(1), pp 1-12, 2015.
Gregory J.R., Kirchain R.E., A comparison of North American electronics recycling systems, Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, pp. 227-232, 2007.
Kahhat R., Kim J., Xu M., Allenby B., Williams E., Zhang P., Exploring e-waste management systems in the United States, Resources, Conservation and Recycling,
vol. 52(7), pp 955-964, 2008.
Bernstad A., Jansen J.l.C., Aspegren H., Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment – A Swedish case study, Waste Management, USA, vol. 31/issue 3, pp 536-543, 2011.
Ukrainian National News Agency "Ukrinform". Retrieved from: https://www.ukrinform.ua
Licensing Registry (hazardous waste management). Retrieved from: https://menr.gov.ua/content/perelik-licenziativ-na-provadzhennya-gospodarskoi-diyalnosti-z-povodzhennya-z-nebezpechnimi-vidhodami.html.
Act of the Government of Ukraine on approval of Licensing conditions for hazardous waste management, Ukraine, No. 446, 13.07.2016.