Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources 2023-01-31T00:00:00+02:00 Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova) Open Journal Systems <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> Modeling the process of mine water clarification using improved purification technology for water disposal conditions of operating coal mining enterprise 2022-11-23T20:53:15+02:00 D. Kulikova <p>The main difference between mine waters, which makes it difficult to clean them, is the presence of finely dispersed (less than 10 microns) aggregate-resistant coal and rock particles, the amount of which can be 50-70% of the total mass of mechanical impurities. Suspended solids that are contained in mine water play a significant role in the contamination of nearby surface water bodies, since they either contain many chemical pollutants or adsorb heavy metals, which indicates the importance of effective mine water settling. Modeling of the mine water clarification process using an improved treatment technology for the conditions of wastewater disposal of an operating coal mining enterprise (Stepova mine of DTEK Pavlohradcoal Private Joint-Stock Company) through the introduction of a horizontal sedimentation tank of a modernized design was carried out. Dependences (in the form of graphs and regression equations) between the depth of particle settling depending on their the different hydraulic size in the proposed sedimentation tank of an improved design, its length and the efficiency of clarification of mine water after its treatment with a coagulant solution (aluminum sulfate) have been established. Using these dependencies, it is possible to determine the value of the expected efficiency of mine water clarification and the hydraulic particle size of suspended particles that can settle to the bottom at the end wall of the proposed sedimentation tank. The overall efficiency of mine water clarification, which is pumped to the surface by the Stepova mine, after treatment in a modernized sedimentation tank and post-treatment in a mine water storage pond, will be 90-91% of the initial concentration of suspended solids. The final concentration of mechanical impurities after treatment according to the proposed improved technology does not exceed the maximum allowable standard for water bodies for cultural and community purposes in terms of the content of suspended solids.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources PROSPECTS FOR IMPROVING THE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER AND TECHNICAL FLUIDS 2022-11-01T11:57:35+02:00 V. Hulevskyi Y. Postol <p><em>Environmental pollution negatively affects natural resources, in particular water bodies. Sewage can easily penetrate the soil and even the liquid that supplies residential and public buildings. Treatment of waste water and technical fluids is necessary to improve the ecological situation.</em></p> <p><em>Liquid pollution accumulates at enterprises of machine building, metalworking, metallurgy, transport and even agriculture. Over the last decade, the composition of pollutants has undergone significant changes. This is due to the reduction in the use of production processes that conserve water resources, the refusal to build local treatment facilities, etc.</em></p> <p><em>Pollution is the presence of various types of harmful substances in water, for each of which different cleaning methods are used, namely:</em></p> <ul> <li class="show"><em>for water-insoluble pollutants, gravity methods are used;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>filtration, settling, coagulation - used for substances that form hydrophobic and hydrophilic systems with water;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>nanofiltration, sorption - purify water from soluble organic compounds.</em></li> </ul> <p><em>In this way, the most appropriate cleaning systems are created that correspond to a certain level of contamination.</em></p> <p><em>Recently, many new effective technologies for industrial wastewater treatment have been developed. The complexity of the cleaning task is determined by the nature of the pollution - usually a number of substances that require a different approach act as undesirable components. It is characteristic of water treatment facilities that they line up in a certain sequence. Such a complex is called a line of sewage treatment plants.</em></p> <p><em>Some systems and types of equipment include different wastewater treatment methods. Due to the diverse content of wastewater entering treatment and the high requirements for water treatment, it is most appropriate to use mixed methods of treatment. For more complex pollution, it is necessary to use devices with a specific effect and special water purification technologies.</em></p> <p><em>Each method of cleaning wastewater and technical liquids is carried out using different devices. Such actions will make it possible to increase the efficiency of wastewater treatment and achieve the highest level of water quality that meets the norms of the main technological processes for reuse.</em></p> <p><em>In this regard, considerable attention is paid to the intensification of the processes of purification of wastewater and technical liquids, improvement of technological schemes, development of new effective methods and structures that allow to improve the quality of wastewater discharged into open reservoirs. , to reduce costs for purified water.</em></p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources RESEARCH OF THE THERMAL POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS MIXTURES OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE TO WOOD PELLETS 2022-12-05T14:54:18+02:00 V. Chupa Ya. Adamenko K. Chupa <p>The article deals with the current issue of solid household waste management and focuses on the<br />fact that the most effective method of reducing the amount of waste is heat treatment. Attention is paid to<br />such an important parameter when burning solid household waste as caloric content.<br />A study of the calorific value of various types of waste, wood solid fuel pellets made from different<br />types of wood was conducted. Waste samples were obtained during an on-site expedition to the municipal<br />solid waste landfill (MSW) in the village of Rybne An analysis of the calorific value of the waste mixture,<br />which corresponds to the morphological composition of the landfill (MSW) in the village of Rybne what<br />suitable for burning. Also, an analysis of the calorific value of the mixture of wood solid fuel pellets,<br />which was made from different types of wood, was carried out. The level of thermal energy for different<br />types of waste (plastic, bio-waste, rubber, paper, textiles, wood, etc.) and different types of solid wood<br />pellets (oak, beech, pine, etc.) was studied. The calorific index of different mixtures of waste and pellets<br />at different percentage values of the components in the mixture was calculated. Microsoft Excel software<br />was used to simplify the calculation. Real caloric values obtained during a laboratory study using an IKA<br />C1 calorimeter were used in the determination.</p> <p>Through transformations, ratios and calculations, dependencies were established for each of the<br />types of waste and solid fuel wood pellets. Using the values of calorific value, which were obtained<br />during combustion, the minimum and maximum levels of caloric content at different percentage values of<br />the components were found. A calculation algorithm has been created, which can be used to determine<br />the amount of thermal energy at various percentage ratios of waste types to wood solid fuel pellets.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources APPLICATION OF THE RAPID ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TOOL FOR THE WETLAND “PRUT RIVER HEADWATERS” IN THE CARPATHIAN NATIONAL NATURE PARK (UKRAINE) 2023-01-20T13:07:04+02:00 M. Korchemlyuk <p>Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems on Earth. They improve water quality, control floods, regulate global carbon levels, have significant cultural and recreational values, and provide habitat for plants and animals uniquely adapted to living in wet conditions.</p> <p>Wetlands are diverse, hydrologically complex ecosystems, which tend to develop within a hydrological gradient going from terrestrial to mainly aquatic habitats [1]. In 2019, two wetlands of the Carpathian National Nature Park (CNNP), Ukraine, were identified by the Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention as wetlands of international importance. The Prut River Heeadwaters Wetland is in the focus of this study. It belongs to Prut River basin that is very important transboundary tributaries of the Danube River. The Site acts as a flood regulator, and a freshwater reservoir, providing drinking water to people within the Prut River basin.</p> <p>The wetland is biodiversity hotspot with valuable species, many of them are listed as threatened in the national and global Red Lists, and a great number are endemic to the Eastern Carpathian biogeographic region. Due to the favourable climate and availability of almost undisturbed landscapes, the wetlands are very popular for visitors.</p> <p>In this study key research task is to apply Rapid Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Services (RAWES) approach to the Prut River Headwaters Wetland in order to provide a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of a comprehensive range of wetland ecosystem services. The objective of the RAWES approach is to facilitate an assessment of the plurality of benefits provided by a wetland, which can be considered genuinely rapid, involving limited resources.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources CONSIDERATION OF CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CARRIERS 2022-10-31T16:11:39+02:00 Olga Khandogina Yurii Kovalenko <p>The article is devoted to the definition and research of environmental and economic criteria for the assessment of energy carriers used for the buildings heating. The criteria for the comparison are based on the amount of heat and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. Various options for the use of energy carriers and corresponding design schemes of heating systems, the most often used in residential buildings, are considered. Calculations of the cost of thermal energy received for heating the building using common types of fuel (coal, firewood, pellets), electricity, and centralized heat supply were made. Also, a comparative assessment of the specific emissions of pollutants for boilers operating on natural gas, hard coal, firewood, and pellets was carried out based on the averaged indicators. It has been established that the minimum cost of a unit of heat is achieved when burning pellets, firewood, but the use of such energy sources leads to additional labor costs, and the most comfortable and least time-consuming is the use of central heating services, a gas or electric boiler with a water heating system. It was determined that considering the impact on the environment at the heated object location, the most safe are a boiler running on natural gas, a centralized heat supply, an electric boiler. Ways to reduce the cost of a thermal energy unit supplied to the building are proposed by using heat pumps. An assessment of the cost of thermal energy supplied to the building using a heat pump was carried out, which showed a significant reduction in the cost of thermal energy supplied to the building in the case of using a heat pump in various variants of the design features of the heating system considering climate conditions compared to options without the use of a heat pump.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT LIQUID POOL EVAPORATION FORMED DUE ACCIDENTAL SPILLS 2022-12-22T21:39:27+02:00 V. Smalii E. Tolok <p>Quantitative analysis and assessment of technogenic risk imply a thorough study of the emergency process at the level of phenomenology. In the process of such a study, mathematical models of the physical and chemical processes of the formation of a hazardous substance in the surrounding space, the occurrence and influence of damaging factors on recipients, which are people, the environment, buildings and equipment, are involved. One of the most common scenarios for the formation of a hazardous substance in the environment is the spillage of a liquid phase, often of a multicomponent composition, onto the earth's surface. The subsequent evaporation of a hazardous substance is a key factor in the formation of an explosive, flammable or toxic cloud. Therefore, it is extremely important to correctly assess the intensity of the release of a hazardous substance into the environment.</p> <p>This study presents a mathematical model for the evaporation of a multicomponent liquid from the surface of an emergency spill, taking into account external energy flows that affect the evaporation process (heat flow from atmospheric air, heat flow from the underlying surface, radiation flow from the sun). The effect of cooling due to evaporation is taken into account. The developed model takes into account the mutual influence of the component composition of the liquid phase and the evaporation process. A comparative analysis of the simulation results was made with the published experimental data on the processes of evaporation of a cryogenic liquid (nitrogen) and liquids under non-boiling conditions such as ethanol and cyclohexane. The results of the comparison showed the applicability of the model in the field of quantitative risk analysis and assessment, and also revealed ways to improve the mathematical model of the multicomponent liquid pool evaporation.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources NUCLEAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF WORLD NUCLEAR ENERGY AT THE STAGE OF THE FOURTH GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSITION 2023-01-22T14:33:17+02:00 I. Korduba <p>For world nuclear energy, the current global energy transition has become the most difficult test stage in its entire history. It was caused by modern global demographic processes. Starting from 2011, in the global nuclear power industry, the design terms of operation of old nuclear power units (NPPs) are being extended, old NPPs are being modernized and new NPPs are being built. But the problems of technological, operational and nuclear-environmental safety of the modern development of world nuclear energy remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the work analyzes the state and prospects of ensuring the nuclear and environmental safety of the world nuclear power complex (NEC), based on the peculiarities of its evolution in the current era of the fourth global energy transition. The biggest threat to the future existence of the world's NPP is the human factor and beyond-design nuclear accidents and catastrophes, which have always been the result of extremely unlikely combinations of initial emergency events unforeseen by projects. To eliminate the consequences of these accidents, the personnel did not have the appropriate training and equipment. In the next 20-30 years, only North America, Europe, the countries of the former USSR and the developed countries of Asia will be able to maintain the contribution of nuclear energy to the total world electricity generation, more than 10%, but with a possible reduction of this indicator to 6-4%. Global nuclear energy continues to exist and develop in the presence of a considerable list of unresolved problems of its nuclear and environmental safety, together with the absence of technologically guaranteed reliable and safe nuclear energy technologies among the entire pool of existing and new projects under development, that remain unresolved both today and in the future for decades. The IAEA and the world's leading experts, based on the current situation in the world's nuclear energy, emphasize the need to create its absolute nuclear and environmental safety.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources THE NBS PROJECT FOR THE ADAPTATION OF THE KYIV OSOKORKY DISTRICT TO CLIMATE CHANGES 2022-12-09T19:23:09+02:00 M. Radomska M. Mushta <p>Global climate changes have significant impact on cities around the world, although the exact threats can vary significantly depending on the geographic region. Kyiv is a capital city with large population and vast area, which faces different challenges imposed by changing climate. The analysis of climate models demonstrates vulnerability of Kyiv urban infrastructure to heat waves, urban heat island, increasing precipitations and negative weather phenomena. The research was conducted for the Osokorky district of Kyiv to determine its problem points and evaluate the resilience of infrastructure. The results of analysis show that in spite of novelty of the district it lacks sustainability components, has poorly developed green and blue infrastructure, as well as inefficient road network. All these factors combined with dense construction create favorable conditions for the thermal pressure at local population and other biotic components of the district. The suggested approach to the adaptation of Osokorky district to climate changes is through the implementation of nature-based solutions with the aim to expand green infrastructure and increase the volume of ecosystem services provided by urban plants. The green roofs design was developed for 15 sites around the district, based on their location and favorable technical conditions. The economic costs of the project were estimated and the payback period based on the value of ecosystem services provided was defined. In order to strengthen the resilience of the district a complex of additional organizational measures is necessary to support the progress towards safe urban environment.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources DESTRUCTION OF THE ICHTHIOFAUNA OF THE SOUTHERN BUG AS A RESULT OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL HYDROPOWER 2022-12-26T20:18:36+02:00 I. Vasylkivskyi Hernan Garcia Camacho <p>The work is devoted to solving the environmental problems of the Southern Bug, which arose as a result of the construction and operation of hydroelectric power plants and the search for ways to restore and preserve the lost ichthyofauna. It was established that decades of economic exploitation of the water resources of the Southern Bug basin had a devastating effect on the biodiversity of ichthyofauna. Many valuable species were destroyed.</p> <p>The beginning of the degradation of the Southern Bug was the massive construction of hydroelectric power stations, which turned out to be a huge permanent and destructive pollution. The Southern Bug turned into a cascade of stagnant watercourses, which completely changed and worsened the conditions for the existence of ichthyofauna species and led to their subsequent disappearance.</p> <p>The processes of destruction of the Southern Bug due to huge regulation and significant pollution continue, which negatively affects its inhabitants, in particular, new representatives of ichthyofauna are added to the category of endangered and disappeared.</p> <p>A number of priority environmental protection measures are proposed, which will help stop the process of final destruction of the Southern Bug, restore its water resources, and reproduce the lost ichthyofauna.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENERGY INDUSTRY ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION OF THE CHERKASSY REGION 2022-12-13T12:19:28+02:00 O. Khomenko O. Mislyuk O. Yegorova <p>analysis of scientific works dedicated to the study of the impact of thermal power plants on the<br />environment was conducted. The analysis of publications shows that the negative impact of thermal<br />power plants on the environment is quite complex, as it includes both atmospheric air pollution by gas<br />and aerosol emissions, as well as thermal energy emissions into the environment and soil pollution. The<br />volume of emissions of polluting substances into the air of Cherkassy region by electricity supply<br />enterprises and the dynamics of the comprehensive air pollution index were analyzed, which showed that<br />in recent years there has been a trend of rapid growth of this indicator. With the help of the cartographic<br />zoning model of the city territory and the indicator of the total environmental load, which is an indicator<br />of aerotechnogenic pollution of landscapes, performed using the SURFER software package, it was<br />determined that the city undergoes a significant aerogenic load, the spread of aerotechnogenic pollution<br />from the southern industrial agglomeration reaches a significant distance and within the radius of action<br />covers the entire territory of the city. A study of population health risk assessment based on annual<br />averages for chronic exposure to atmospheric pollution showed that the population risk is 12.4 times<br />higher than the limit value. The overall non-carcinogenic risk is 7.75 (there is a risk of developing adverse<br />effects in most of the population). The respiratory organs (HQ=7.42) and the immune system (HQ=2.67)<br />are most affected.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF INCREASE IN ENERGY INTENSITY TRANSPORT SYSTEMS 2023-01-20T13:12:49+02:00 L. Kozak <h1><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-weight: normal;">The article deals with important issues of efficient use of energy and ecological safety of the environment, which are closely related to each other. Prospects for efficient use of fuel for increasing the total number of vehicles and increasing their speed characteristics have been analyzed. To do this, an analysis of energy consumption was carried out for two cases - the urban transport system and high-speed intercity connections. They studied the influence of various factors - speed, air resistance and friction on energy losses by vehicles and ways of reducing them. A transport system with a special profiled overpass, along which the vehicle moves under the influence of gravity, is considered. In such a transport system, energy for movement is periodically accumulated by raising the vehicle to a certain height at route stops. Due to the accumulation of potential energy, the movement of the vehicle is supported. Braking energy is used to accelerate it to the required speed. Due to the full recuperation of braking energy and a reduction in the rolling friction coefficient, a significant reduction in the total energy consumption for the movement of vehicles is achieved. The results of a comparative analysis of energy consumption for traditional urban transport with the proposed transport system are presented. In addition, the effect of rarefaction of air in special overpasses on the efficiency of energy consumption by vehicles was studied. With significant energy savings, the use of the proposed transport system will reduce chemical and thermal emissions and significantly improve the environment.</span></h1> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources GREEN ENERGY: PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 2023-01-23T10:44:54+02:00 V. Linchenko D. Zhuk N. Lysenko S. Stepenko I. Zhuk <p>Nowadays, the assurance of energy security of our country is an important scientific and practical<br />task for state electricity supply companies and enterprises which are directly related to the fuel and energy<br />complex of Ukraine (electricity sector). Solving this issue is related to the formation of a reliable network<br />of alternative generation complexes and requires a preliminary analysis, research, improvement of the of<br />integration tools (connections) of wind, solar, bio, hydro power plants with industrial networks in the<br />infrastructure of Ukraine. In addition to the improvement of the technical part of integrated complexes<br />according to the structure "alternative generation source - conversion station - industrial electric<br />network", the ecological aspects of "green energy" are relevant. Namely, the impact on the external ecological environment of such complexes or their positive contribution to the reduction of negative<br />impact on the environment from traditional electricity generation.<br />The paper deals with the dynamics of the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in<br />Ukraine, including the volumes of "green energy" and "harmful energy" production. An analysis of the<br />relevant regulatory documents and the current state of the RES implementation in Ukraine during 2015-<br />2021 has been carried out. A special attention is paid to the study of the indicators of the limit volumes of<br />emissions of pollutants in the process of electricity production.<br />The issue of using energy-saving technologies in the context of ensuring the economic security of<br />Ukraine is considered.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources STUDY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN HALYCHYNA IN THE LATE XIX-EARLY XX CENTURY IN THE CCONTEXT OF FORMING INDUSTRIAL TOURISM PROGRAMS 2022-12-13T12:07:35+02:00 Y. Korobeynukova V. Klapchuk O. Paliichuk O. Pozdnyakov <p>The development of a new for Ukraine type of tourism – the industrial tourism requires complex researches on the methodology of resource potential assessment, consideration of the safety aspects of such tourist activity type. Equally important is the informative content of tourist programs, which requires detailed historical discoveries and filling with a factographic base of tourist objects of industrial tourism. Their attractiveness is forming in this way, which affects the quality of tourist programs in general This problematics is up-to-date for all areas of industrial tourism, and oil and gas pipeline objects are not the exception. The article researches the history of oil and gas pipelines in Halychyna in the late XIX – early XX century. The history of oil transportation in Halychyna begins with the oil pipeline that connected the oil field in Sloboda Runhurska with the Pechenizhyn railway station, which was built in 1886. In the year 1932, in Halychyna functioned 7 oil-producing enterprises (10% of the total number), which transported raw materials, having their own pipelines. At the end of the 1930s, the number of oil enterprises almost doubled, 9 companies transported raw materials and oil products. The first gas pipeline in Halychyna with a 0.7 km length was built in 1912 in Boryslav. The same year, two gas pipelines (about of 12 km each) connected Boryslav with Drohobych. By the end of the 1920s, about 300 km of gas pipelines were already operating in Halychyna. In Boryslavsko-Drohobytskyi district, gas pipelines were built before the war, and in Yaselskyi district, starting from the year 1919. The increase in natural gas production in Halychyna allowed to increase the gasification networks of human settlements and enterprises. In the year 1933, 97664 thousands m3 of gas were produced in Yaselskyi mining district, 319950 thousands m3 of gas were produced in Drohobytskyi mining district and 44597 in Stanislavivskyi mining district, the owners and transporters of which were 15 companies. Thus, during 1912–1938, 11 gas pipelines with diameters of 80–225 mm and a total length of 293.7 km were built in Halychyna. Information about the history of establishment and development of oil and gas pipelines in Halychyna in the late XIX-early XX century is an important factographic source for understanding the evolution of the oil and gas transport system of Ukraine and the basis for the formation of tourist programs of industrial tourism at the objects of the oil and gas complex.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF INFLUENCES OF MAIN GAS PIPES ON THE ENVIRONMENT 2023-01-20T13:04:45+02:00 O. Tuts <p>During accidents of main gas pipelines, the main part of the environmental impact is pollution of<br />the atmospheric air by emissions of natural gas or products of its combustion during explosions and fires.<br />Also, when the gas pipeline is depressurized due to the occurrence of cracks, breaks and leaks, all this<br />leads to soil, surface and underground water pollution. The extent of damage will depend on the type and<br />size of the spill, the type and amount of waste generated, and the extent to which natural resources are<br />affected. Also, at each stage from the laying to the operation of pipelines, it is necessary to pay great<br />attention to the state of the environment and to prevent pollution and the possibility of emergency<br />situations, fires, explosions, and accidents. As a result of the analysis of ecological impacts on the<br />environment, a generalized classification of consequences by environmental factors and methods of<br />reducing the impact and consequences of gas transport infrastructure was developed. The article also<br />analyzes the main environmental consequences of the main pipelines' effects on the environment from<br />construction to operation under various conditions.</p> 2023-03-05T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources