Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> en-US (Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova)) (Тарас Качала (Taras Kachala)) Wed, 17 Feb 2021 20:55:28 +0200 OJS 60 ECO-LOGISTIC SYSTEM AS A RESULT OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WORLD-VIEW CONCEPT OF HUMANITY ON ECOLOGICALLY ORIENTED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: 90%;"><span lang="UK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 90%;">The article gives a systematic view of the eco-logistic system as a result of changes in the worldview of humanity from technogenic to sustainable development. The feasibility of greening the logistic activities to reduce the eco-destructive impact on the environment has been substantiated. The essence of the eco-logistic system is determined and its definition is given. Eco-logistic system is a logistic system viewed as a set of link elements interconnected in the process of controlling the movement of direct and reverse logistic flows, taking into account the eco-destructive impact on the environment.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: 90%;"><span lang="UK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 90%;">The description of the eco-logistic system is presented, which is an anthropogenic, ecological-economic, open, complex, multifunctional, well-organized, stochastic, centralized, multidimensional, purposeful, developing system. The characteristics of the eco-logistic system are determined, which is characterized by general characteristics of systems, specific characteristics of logistics systems, as well as individual ones: environmental friendliness and closed.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: 90%;"><span lang="UK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 90%;">The evolution of logistic systems and logistic chains is investigated in accordance with the stages of logistics development. The internal and external environment of the eco-logistic systems of micro-, meso- and macrolevels are analyzed. At the micro-level, the eco-logistic system should be considered as a subsystem of enterprise management, which includes functional logistic subsystems. At the meso- and macro-levels, the eco-logistic system consists of subsystems – participants in the logistic chain that take part in the promotion of direct and reverse material flows, as well as associated flows. The composition of direct and reverse (return and recycling-utilization) flows has been determined.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: 90%;"><span lang="UK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 90%;">The external environment of the eco-logistic system is analyzed, which is a subsystem of the system of a higher level of the hierarchy, namely, the ecological-economic system, which is part of the anthroposphere and biosphere.</span></p> <p> </p> Т. Kovtun Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY OF GREEN PLANTATIONS VITALITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF TECHNOGENIC-TRANSFORMED ECOSYSTEMS <p>The most informative parameters of woody plants living condition are analyzed, which should be used for ecological monitoring of urbanized and oil-contaminated areas. The reactions of the plant organism at different levels of the biosystem organization in response to the action of priority pollutants of the technogenic-transformed environment - heavy metals and oil products - are given. The relevance of the study of oil pollution as one of the main environmental problems of today is substantiated. Adaptive-protective reactions characteristic of resistant plant species and destructive changes in stress-sensitive phytoobjects are highlighted. It is established that the widest range of plant reactions to man-made environmental influences can be found at the molecular, cellular and organ levels of biosystems organization. Based on a set of morphological, physiological, cytological, histological and phenological processes of plants, it is recommended to use indicator species in biomonitoring studies, and remediative species - in reclamation measures of anthropogenically altered areas. Methodical approaches to the assessment of the ecological condition of urbanized and oil-contaminated ecosystems, based on the specifics of zoning and the choice of background area, are highlighted. The classes of vitality and the categories of plant stability are characterized on the basis of the percentage deviation of the analyzed plant parameters with the background values. The prospects of green plantations as primary producers of organic matter and recipients of complex influence of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic environmental factors are substantiated. The criteria for sampling plant material for bioindication studies in order to obtain reliable factual data are described. The relationship between the processes that occur at all levels of the biosystem hierarchy of the plant organism - from molecular to ecosystem – is highlighted. Based on the establishment of the living condition of green areas of urbanized and oil-contaminated areas, it is possible to timely record the slightest changes in the ecological state of the environment and prevent further negative trends in it.</p> N. Glibovytska, L. Shkitsa Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES OF THE RECREATIONAL RESOURCES OF YAVORIV NATIONAL NATURE PARK <p>The article describes the tourist, recreational and environmental problems that arise as a result of the intensive use of recreational resources in nature parks and the possibilities of their protection. Yavoriv National Nature Park (NNP) successfully carries out the environmental protection, scientific and research, environmental and educational, and recreational activities. International conferences and seminars are held at the park. Teachers conduct thematic lessons in nature in the “<em>soft skills</em>” format, postgraduate students write dissertations and university teachers conduct practical training and research activities. The presence of 6 ecological and educational trails and 4 hiking trails make it possible to organize tours almost all year round. The park actively uses 5 recreational areas, which are in great demand among Ukrainian and foreign tourists. Cyclotourism is well-developed. It has been established [3] that the accumulation of a large number of people leads to the gradual degradation of natural habitats, destruction of vegetation, deterioration of soil, elimination of rare plant species and depletion of biodiversity. The article analyzes the current state of natural recreational centers of the Yavoriv NNP and identifies positive trends in the restoration of ecosystems and self-regulation of nature to the state of naturalization. However, if last year the tourism sector was suppressed by people’s fear of a pandemic caused by the Covid-19 Coronavirus, next year is not expected to be so inert: Ukrainians will travel abroad carefully, and domestic tourism will become popular. The protection technologies of forest, water recreational objects, flora and fauna of parks, measures to reduce the negative impact on soils are presented. Proposals have been made to intensify the ecological and cultural tourist movement in the Yavoriv NNP. It is recommended that the heads of the recreation department direct the staff-guides to advanced training courses, master classes on identifying the opportunities for modernization of ecological routes. A proposal was made to the local authorities to expand the promotion of recreational resources in Roztochia, provide eco-education to tourists as a brand of tourism in the park and increase funding for this area.</p> <pre style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%;"> </pre> H. Lysak, M. Biliak, N. Panas, O. Mazurak Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 SPECTROMETRY OF RADIONUCLIDES Cs-137 AND Sr-90 IN SURFACE FRESH WATERS AND CONFORMITY OF THEIR ACTIVITY TO PERMISSIBLE LEVELS <p>The comparison of the radiation effect rates of the surface water polluted with radionuclides <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr and permissible levels (PL) of their activity is considered. A new approach to calculating the compliance index (CI), assessing the content of <sup>137</sup>Cs or <sup>90</sup>Sr in water, is proposed. The approach is based on the assumption of the CI dependence on the relative value of the deviation parameter. This parameter is determined in fractions of the minimum measured specific activity (MMSA) by the spectrometer. The influence of storage coefficient on the CI, which compensates for the inaccuracies in the MMSA calculation, is investigated. The algorithm for defining the stock coefficient as a function of the deviation parameter is proposed. The algorithm is based on the data from a series of measurements of a load.</p> <p>The equation for calculating the storage coefficient is presented. It uses a model to describe the distribution of the relative measurement error of the normalized Gaussian function. The suitability of the latter is justified by the results of measuring the activity of <sup>137</sup>Cs. The representation of the Gaussian function argument by two parameters is applied. One is the deviation parameter, the other one adjusts the width of the distribution peak. The method of squared deviation minimization is used to define both parameters of the Gaussian function. According to the obtained values, the exponent optimally describes the experiment result. The universal equation for calculating the CI is established. A number of provisions of the theory of operational characteristics of the test are applied. The equation combines two separate relations, according to which the relation between CI and <sup>137</sup>Cs or <sup>90</sup>Sr can be calculated in the problem of the radioactive surface-water quality analysis.</p> <p>The calculations results of CI, storage coefficient and other parameters are presented. Measurement data of <sup>137</sup>Cs activity in two model samples-analogues of the possible loads of surface water were used. The efficiency of the algorithm used for calculating the deviation intervals near the lower limit of measuring the activity of radionuclides is proved. The results correspond to the physical preconditions that are embedded in the spectrometric data processing model. The proposed ratios are efficient in determining the cleanliness class and water contamination rate in the process of interpreting the test results.</p> V. Sinchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ECO-RESOURCE SUPPORT OF DESIGN OF THE TOURIST COMPLEX IN THE RAKHIV DISTRICT OF THE TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION <p>The prediction of consequences for the environment from the implementation of projects on the development of tourist complexes within the Carpathian region in Ukraine and also the ecoresource provision of designing large hotel and tourist complexes is extremely relevant and needs a scientific and methodological basis. The main purpose of the research is to consider the feasibility of the designed activity in terms of eco-resource supply of a large project (over 10 thousand vacationers) of the hotel and tourist complex with water supply and sewerage subject to compliance with the requirements environmental safety with the use of authors’ scientific and methodological approaches to assessing the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the natural and technogenic safety of the hydroecosystem of the Chorna Tysa River. The research results are presented from in terms of the priority of environmental factors in relation to the economic and social factors. The authors’ calculations of the main quantitative characteristics of the natural and technogenic safety of the monitoring sites of surface hydroecosystems of the Carpathian region of the studied territory are presented in the paper. The authors have proposed the scientific approaches to defining the part of hydroresources which can be used by the designed tourist complex upon the condition of preserving the environmental safety and at the minimum technogenic risk. The component of the quantitative potential of hydroecosystems of the study area, which can be used for water supply, is theoretically determined; the maximum possible value of wastewater discharge, as a reserve for self-purification, and accumulation in catchment basins is calculated for the potential value. The authors have analyzed the obtained research data on the average, maximum and minimum concentrations of chemicals in the Black Tysa River 1.0 km upstream the urban-type settlement of Yasinia and the average, maximum and minimum concentrations of chemicals in the Black Tysa River 1.5 km downstream the urban-type settlement of Yasinia for the period 2014-2019, obtained by the Transcarpathian Hydrometeorological Center in a certified laboratory. The location of treatment facilities of the designed tourist complex is proposed.</p> Ya. Adamenko, L. Arkhypova Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTHROPOGENIC LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION WITHIN THE AREA AFFECTED BY BURSHTYNSKA THERMAL POWER PLANT OF PJSC «DTEK ZAKHIDENERGO» <p>The conversion of primary energy sources into electrical energy has advantages and disadvantages. Burshtyn Thermal Power Plant of PJSC “DTEK Zakhidenergo” is a thermal power plant that uses coal, fuel oil and natural gas to produce electricity.</p> <p>Thermal power plants have the greatest impact on the air due to emissions of flue gases and dust. They also affect other components of the environment, in particular the landscape. This causes its anthropogenic transformation.</p> <p>The main polluting agents of the environment have been considered in this paper. It also contains a brief analysis of the scientific papers devoted to the study of the impact of thermal power plants on the environment, as well as a review of the scientific papers that highlight the environmental impact of Burshtynka Thermal Power Plant of PJSC “DTEK Zakhidenergo”. The landscape structure of the territory located within the operation area is provided.</p> <p>The anthropogenic landscape transformation on the study area was assessed according to the Melnyk-Miller method. Its essence is to map the area and determine the percentage of landscape types in the selected area. The method helps to quantify the anthropogenic modification of the territory. The modification rating depends on the geocomplex rank. The degree of anthropogenic landscape transformation was defined to be 40% and the modification cost of one percent of the surface accounted for 4 points. The maps were built using MapInfo software.</p> <p>The research findings show the anthropogenic landscape change. They can be used for further observations and research of the impact of Burshtynska Thermal Power Plant of PJSC “DTEK Zakhidenergo” on the environmental components and to make appropriate decisions on its reduction.</p> H. Lialiuk-Viter, Kh.-M. Chychul, Ya. Semchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ASSESSMENT OF SPRING WATER AVAILABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR THE POPULATION OF KHARKIV OBLAST <p>The paper focuses on the assessment of suitability of groundwater springs in Kharkiv oblast for the alternative and reserve drinking water supply, based on the quantitative characteristics of spring water, springs arrangement features, and their location. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions for spring water flow are observed in the areas of extensive development of the porous and stratal Mezhyhiria aquifer formation and fractured deposits of Obukhiv Eocene aquifer formation with a rather severe topography in river valleys and ravines. On ArcGIS Online platform, the authors have developed the open geodatabase containing the information on 513 springs of Kharkiv oblast. It is available at <a href=""></a>. It has been found out that 45% of the studied springs are located within settlements or within 1 km, i.e. within walking distance. The highest density of springs and spring water reserves has been found in the northern part of oblast. Quantitative analysis of the available spring water resources has shown that springs are capable to satisfy the needs in drinking water for the total population of the whole Kharkiv oblast only by the daytime flow which is as high as 400 l/s. At the same time, a significant part of natural springs in the oblast has not yet been studied and/or properly equipped with tapping. When studied and equipped with tanks for accumulating water during night-time, springs have the potential to provide sufficient water for the population of Kharkiv oblast not only for drinking purposes but also for domestic and hygienic needs. The conducted study substantiates the possibility of using groundwater springs for the decentralized drinking water supply in emergency cases if the tapping and entrance to it are properly arranged and if relevant measures for the groundwater quality conservation are implemented in the areas of spring water flows.</p> D. Diadin, A. Novikova, V. Yakovliev Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF IMPROVING THE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM VEGETABLE OILS <p>Traditional biodiesel production technologies are complex, energy consuming and lead to the formation of by-products, such as glycerol phase and waste water during biodiesel washing. The paper deals with improving the technology of biodiesel production by treating rapeseed oil with an emulsifier to obtain a microemulsion of oil and ethanol, which do not mix with each other. The use of excess sodium ethoxide allows to transesterify both rapeseed oil and glycerol, which is a by-product of traditional technologies. The esterification products of glycerol are ethyl glycerates. Biodiesel, containing ethyl ethers of glycerol, has better performance properties. The technological scheme of such a process does not require the separation stage of glycerol and biodiesel phases. However, this product should be thoroughly cleaned. Therefore, a centrifuge was added to the technological scheme. The new technological scheme of the process makes it possible to improve the technology of biodiesel synthesis. The traditional technology of biodiesel production involves cooling and draining the wash water into the sewer, which is unacceptable in the modern conditions of environmental pollution. The paper considers the solution to the problem of wastewaters that accumulate after the washing phase. They contain the residues of salts, sulfuric acid, ethyl alcohol and emulsifier neonol, which form a stable azeotropic mixture. The traces of ethyl alcohol can be removed by simple distillation. However, removing other components requires the use of advanced methods. To reduce pollution in the wash water, the approbatory studies of the effective physico-electrochemical technology were performed by means of treating water in an electrical device before it was directed to a thin-layer settling tank and then to the filtration through zeolite. This purification technology helps to increase the purification degree in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 86.8 to 92.5 that proves reducing pollutants entering the environment. The proposed improvements of biodiesel technology help to increase the yield of biodiesel due to the esterification of glycerol and make the process more environmentally friendly.</p> V. Ribun, V. Cheliadyn, L. Cheliadyn Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 METHOD FOR OBTAINING BIOSORBENT AND STUDY OF ITS PROPERTIES <p>The problem of surface waters pollution with heavy metals and their accumulation in the sediments of wastewaters that are formed on the cleaning installations of municipal enterprises is the top priority in the area of environmental protection and resource saving. The absence of wastewaters sediments disposal and increase in their quantity in the active sludge banks lead to the expropriation of the new land sites for storage areas, pollution of underground waters and air while wastewaters sediments can be used as a secondary raw material after the additional processing aimed at reducing the toxic influence of heavy metals.</p> <p>The author of article proposes the methods for obtaining biosorbent from wastewaters sediments using thermal pyrolysis and the methodology of its specific surface area study. For this purpose, the wastewaters sediments, after the previous processing by dehydration and grinding, are subjected to pyrolysis in the hermetically sealed container, which is isolated from air and connected hydraulically with pyrolysis process control block. In the process of pyrolysis, the wastewaters sediments are transformed into metals oxides which can be used as biosorbents. The biosorbent specific surface area was studied using the low temperature nitrogen absorption method.</p> <p> </p> I. Zasidko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 IMPROVEMENT OF MANUFACTURING SCHEME OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR GALVANIC SHOPS OF COAL MACHINE BUILDING ENTERPRISES <p>Plating is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries. Since the enterprises are characterized by a wide range of technological processes, composition of solutions and electrolytes, and processed mechanical parts, it results in producing wastewaters that are quite diverse in the qualitative and quantitative composition.</p> <p>The plating plants and sites, operating in the country, are built according to the same technology and perform only the plating or metal-surface treatment, almost without taking into consideration the issues of removing heavy-metal ions from wastewater, plating waste disposal and environmental protection. Many enterprises still use out-of-date and no longer efficient processes for water treatment, and sometimes do not have any treatment wastewater facilities at all, which leads to the discharge of untreated and insufficiently treated wastewaters into surface watercourses.</p> <p>The fundamental solution to the problem of water pollution consists in the development and implementation of closed water circulation and resource-saving technological processes that help to return valuable components into manufacture, excluding the discharge of polluted wastewaters into water bodies, which is economically and environmentally justified.</p> <p>The existing technological procedure for the plating wastewater treatment of coal mechanical engineering enterprises has been improved on the basis of their post-treatment by the ion exchange method. It is proposed to install ion exchange filters at the final stage of wastewater treatment. The implementation of the proposed and improved technological procedure of wastewater treatment significantly reduces the content of heavy metal compounds and other pollutants according to the national water quality standards, which helps to create a closed water circulation system, and return up to 95% of polished water for the enterprise’s production needs (preparation of solutions for electrolytes, flushing operations, etc.).</p> D. Kulikova, O. Kovrov Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF DRILLING SOLUTIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON PLANTS <p>The environmental pollution by drilling fluids, used in oil and gas wells operation, is described. The biological and technical methods of maintaining the environmental safety during oil production and preventing the emission of pollutants into the environment are highlighted. The influence of toxic drilling fluids solutions on the functioning of biotic and abiotic blocks of the ecosystems is analyzed. The composition and types of drilling fluids are described, their classification according to the level of environmental hazard is provided. The polymer-potassium drilling fluid has the greatest toxic effect on ecosystems, and the clay type of drilling fluid has the least adverse effect on the environment. Sodium, calcium and chloride salts, which cause the salinization of edaphotopes, are among the most dangerous components of drilling fluids. Soil salinization disrupts the water regime of plants, which leads to the vegetative organs necrosis, increase in water transpiration, deterioration of photosynthetic processes, decrease in the formation of organic compounds and respiration, premature death of phyto-organisms. Getting into the soil, calcium and sodium hydroxides, as the components of drilling fluids, cause the increase in the soil solution alkalinity, which inhibits the growth and development of plants. The extensive adaptive capabilities of some plants under the influence of drilling fluids components are established. Under the conditions of excessive salinization of edaphotopes, halophytes are well adapted to the stressful growth conditions due to their special metabolic and structural features. Oil, which is included in drilling fluids in small concentrations, accumulates over time in the environment and causes destructive changes in living systems by blocking the enzymatic activity in cells, slowing down the growth processes, causing the predominance of catabolic processes over the anabolic ones. To combat environmental pollution by petroleum products and drilling fluids during the development of oil fields, it is advisable to combine technical and biological methods. Studying the remediation properties of plant organisms in the conditions of oil pollution is an urgent task for the modern practical ecology.</p> L. Plaksii, N. Glibovytska Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INTO THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR BY OIL AND GAS FACILITIES <p> </p> <p>Oil and gas companies account for a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The main task of the environmental policy of oil and gas companies is to ensure efficient operation, which includes reducing environmental risks in the production process. Solving the problems related to environmental protection and improving the quality of its social component is always relevant. The urgency is to reduce the man-made load on the environment by oil and gas companies. The aim of the work was to analyze greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by the oil and gas complex objects. In the course of the research, the following tasks were solved: the process of greenhouse gas dispersion in the atmospheric air during emission from a stationary source was modelled; changes in the concentration of greenhouse gas in the air and the possibility of impact on the health of service personnel were analyzed. The research object was the oil and gas company, the research subject – the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by stationary sources.</p> <p>The choice of carbon dioxide for research was substantiated. The concentrations of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources were calculated using the empirical-statistical Gaussian model. The dependence for determining the virtual height of stationary sources was improved. The process of carbon dioxide dispersion during emission from stationary sources was simulated, which would help to determine the change of gas concentration in the atmospheric air on the site and the possibility of impact on the personnel. It was proved that the change in the concentration of carbon dioxide emissions depended on the source height. As the height of the stationary source decreases, the concentration of gas in the air increases; at a distance of 500 m from the sources, the concentration of gas in the air corresponds to the normal background value. Under normal background values ​​of carbon dioxide, the company’s emissions do not pose a threat to personnel health.</p> H. Kryvenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0200