Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> en-US ebzr.nung@gmail.com (Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova)) taraskachala@gmail.com (Тарас Качала (Taras Kachala)) Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EFFICIENCY OF ECOLOGICAL-CLIMATE AND OTHER MODELS BY DISTRIBUTING CALCULATIONS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/456 <p>Modern scientific models require significant computing power and access to the capabilities of supercomputers. The solution to this problem is the Distributed Computing Interface (BOINC), based on Berkeley's open software platform for GRID computing. This is a software for distributing an array of information between personal computers and further mathematical processing. Many universities in the world work with this system to solve problems, and formed national centers for grid computing, which includes many teams and individual volunteers.</p> <p>In Ukraine, this center is called the Ukrainian National Grid (UNG) and is the only research national e-infrastructure in Ukraine, which brings together 39 resource centers of research organizations (29 belong to the NAS of Ukraine). UNG's integration into the European system helps to work together on global problems in mathematics, ecology and physics, using European resources for data processing and storage.</p> <p>Mathematical models are widely used in ecology. They are empovered to make ecological and climatic forecasts, model the physical properties of natural components under different conditions to ensure optimal conditions for certain phenomena under study. The effectiveness of the application of grid technologies in ecology is demonstrated by successfully completed and current research projects of World Community Grid, which results have global significance.</p> <p>With the development of distributed computing in science and the popularity of cryptography there is a problem of the feasibility of available users of desktop (personal computer) with their potentially low power and the need to analyze their effectiveness in various grid projects to determine the most effective use.</p> I. Klymchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/456 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BETA-SPECTROMETRIC METHOD OF CONTROL OVER RADIATION SAFETY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FISHING PRODUCTS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/459 <p>The article deals with the issue of determining the suitability index (SI) of radionuclide-contaminated (RN) agricultural and fishing products as an indicator of safety from the combined action on the human body of RN <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr. A new approach to calculating SI is presented. It combines the content of these RN in the product and the value of permissible levels of their activity. The approach is based on the assumption of the dependence of PP on the values ​​of the activity multiplicity parameter. The parameters are determined in units of the minimum measured specific activity (MMSA) of the spectrometer for each of the RN. The influence of stock coefficients on the PP as a compensator of errors in the calculation of MMSA values ​​is investigated. The stock ratio is defined as a function of the multiplicity parameter.</p> <p>The calculation of the values of the stock coefficient was performed using the model for describing the distribution of the relative error of activity measurement by the multiplicity parameter. The normalized Gaussian function was used. The argument of the latter one is represented by two parameters. One is the activity multiplicity parameter, the other one regulates the peak width. The parameters of the Gaussian function are determined by the method of minimizing the squares of deviations. At such values, the exponent optimally describes the experiment result. A universal equation for SI calculation has been obtained. The equation combines two separate ratios, according to which the SI relative to the combined effect of RN <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr is usually calculated when analyzing the radiation quality of food raw materials and food.</p> <p>The results of calculations of SI, stock coefficient and necessary parameters for this purpose according to the measurement of RN <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>90</sup>Sr activity in mushrooms of forest origin are presented. The possibility of preliminary estimation of technological parameters of test is shown. The method of reducing the study time by obtaining data using concentrated and non-concentrated samples is substantiated. The efficiency of the SI calculation algorithm in the case of multiplicity parameters, the value of which is close to the measurement low limit, is proved. The presented ratios provide an additional guarantee in the correctness of the decision on the suitability of the product.</p> V. Sinchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/459 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF FORECASTING DISASTER FLOODS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/454 <p>01.01.2021р. by order of the Rector, was created a separate structural unit within IFNTUNG - Center of forecasting and prevention of technogenic and hydroecological danger of Prykarpattia. In recent years, two catastrophic floods have occurred in the Carpathian region and in Podillya: one on July 23-28, 2008, and the other one on June 20-24, 2020. Both caused enormous damage to the environment and the population, as was widely reported in the media. To be prepared for natural disasters, it is necessary to learn how to predict that know the territory in which they appear to be lifting height of the water and when it happens. From this triad, the first two components have already learned to predict, but the third has not yet. The article considers the possibility of a weather forecast, which was confirmed during the flood of June 20-24, 2020. O. M. Adamenko and D. O. Zorin plotted global climate change over the period of the Earth's history from its birth 4.567 billion years ago to the present. It turned out that the warm and cold periods alternated periodically, from the Galactic Year (225-250 million years), of which there were 19, to the current 11 summer cycles of solar activity. A total of 13 orders of cycles were identified, which interfere in the form of sinusoids, determining the periodicity of geological events. Geotectonic epochs of the 2nd order (50-70 million years) are superimposed on the cyclicity of the 1st order - galactic years - these are Karelian, Baikal, Caledonian, Hercynian, Pacific and Alpine tectonic-magmatic epochs, which are divided into subepochs of the 3rd (30-40 million years) and 4 (10-15 million) orders. The following cycles - 5 (3-5 million years), 6 (150-140 thousand years) and 7 (10-20 thousand years) are associated with a large Cenozoic cooling, which ended with the Quaternary glaciation. 8 (1-4 thousand years) and 9 (500-600 years) cycles reflect changes in warming and cooling in the quarter. And then the analysis of events is reconstructed on the basis of archaeological and chronicle data: from the beginning of our era to the twelfth century. The warming of the ninth cycle continued - a small climatic optimum and a small ice age (XIII - XVII centuries). Modern warming began in the 19th century with clear 33-year fluctuations of the 10th cycle. From 1881, instrumental observations appeared at meteorological stations and hydro posts. XI (20-15-11 years), XII (5-6 years) and XIII (3-4 years) cycles appeared. Against the background of 33 annual fluctuations in the global climate, 11 annual cycles and catastrophic floods of 1911, 1927, 1941, 1955, 1969, 1980, 1988, 2002, 2008 appeared, and the catastrophic flood of 2020 predicted by O. M. Adamenko and D.O. Zorin. Thus, it is possible to learn to predict the time of the next catastrophic flood.</p> O. Adamenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/454 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 PROSPECTS OF ENERGY USE OF BIOMASS IN UKRAINE https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/452 <p>The article analyzes the state of production and use of energy resources in the world, as well as current trends and forecasts of energy use from renewable sources in total final energy consumption. The definition and classification of bioresources depending on their origin is offered and their qualitative characteristics are analyzed. Legislative norms and documents related to the development of fuel and energy sectors and prospects for the development of RES in Ukraine.</p> <p>It is determined that the main problems that hinder the development of bioenergy are the need for biomass conversion, complexity and energy intensity of biofuel production technologies, unformed raw material base, inconsistent raw material composition and lack of guarantees for stable supply of raw materials. Based on the analysis of biomass conversion methods, a classification of the main types of energy processes related to biomass processing is proposed. The analysis of biomass conversion technologies allowed us to conclude that at this stage the technologies of thermochemical conversion of direct biomass combustion are actively developing due to the simplicity of technology and low energy consumption.</p> <p>The analysis of the dynamics of RES capacity growth in Ukraine allowed us to conclude that Ukraine has all the prerequisites for intensive development, production and use of non-traditional energy sources. This is facilitated by promising bioresources for electricity and heat generation technologies, it is substantiated that bioenergy has the potential to become one of the main strategic resources for improving energy and environmental security of the country.</p> G. Koshlak, Anatoliy Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/452 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF GREENING OF THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM OF THE CITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEASURES FOR ITS OPTIMIZATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF M. IVANO-FRANKIVSKA https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/455 <p>The current stage of world development is determined by the rapid growth of cities, the accumulation of population, transport, industry, harmful emissions into the environment. Climate change and marked global trends are worsening living conditions in cities. In this context, architecture and urban planning must contribute to solving the problem of ensuring the comfort of human habitat.</p> <p>The formation of the city's planning structure is closely connected with the development of a comprehensive green zone. The modern development of the city of Ivano-Frankivsk is happening at a rapid pace. At the same time territories for green plantings are not taken away, or their areas are minimum. This reduces the comfort of the environment and affects the health and well-being of residents.</p> <p>An important component of the planning structure of the city is its complex green zone, the structure and forms of configuration of which largely depend on the degree of optimal functioning of the urban ecosystem.</p> <p>Together with the residential and industrial zones, KKZ forms a certain planning structure, the planning framework of the city. The settlement territory is one of the most important elements of the city and it occupies (depending on the economic profile of the city) from 60 to 80% of the territory. Within the settlement territory there is a non-productive activity of the population, ie life and daily rest are organized.</p> <p>Therefore, on the example of the city of Ivano-Frankivsk the problem of landscaping and the role of green areas in ensuring recreation and health of the population, the most important problems of landscaping and related environmental problems, the solution of which is in the plane of changing strategic approaches to targeted conservation, restoration and accumulation greenery in the city.</p> T. Kachala, D. Kukhtar Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/455 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 RESEARCH OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH OF IVANO-FRANKIVSK REGION https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/460 <p>The aim of the work is to study the impact of the environment on human health in Ivano-Frankivsk region based on the analysis of mortality rates and the level of air pollution.</p> <p>The study analyzes the temporal dynamics and territorial differences of mortality rates, which may show the impact of environmental determinants on health, for the period 2010-2019 for Ivano-Frankivsk region and Ukraine. It is established that the population of Ivano-Frankivsk region is characterized by a lower overall mortality rate and higher average life expectancy compared to the national average.</p> <p>The main cause of death in Ukraine is non-communicable diseases. It was found that mortality from major non-communicable diseases associated with air pollution (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tracheal, bronchial and lung cancer) averages 70% of all deaths in Ivano-Frankivsk region, which averages 12.2 thousand people annually. Territorial differences in the proportions of deaths by individual causes of death associated with air pollution have been identified.</p> <p>Based on WHO statements and statistics, it is assumed that during the study period due to air pollution in Ivano-Frankivsk region died on average annually: from coronary heart disease - 1589 people, from cerebrovascular disease - 135 people, from cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lungs - 68 people, from chronic lower respiratory disease 14 people.</p> <p>The temporal dynamics and territorial features of air pollution in Ivano-Frankivsk region for 2010-2019 are analyzed. It is established that the region is characterized by significant air pollution from stationary sources with exceeding the average state emissions per unit area and per person. Emissions from stationary sources are dominated by substances that have evidence of health effects.</p> <p> </p> N. Moskalchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/460 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF TERRITORIES OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS: DEFINITIONS, MECHANISMS, AND PROBLEMS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/453 <p>The article summarizes and systematizes the mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of the territories of different tourism destinations in Ukraine. The relevant studies in this area refer to the development of theoretical foundations for ensuring sustainability of the territories of tourism destinations and some publications deal with the assessment of the volume of resource usage (primarily land resources in tourism activities). There are no generalized conclusions regarding the peculiarities of the application of the available mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of the territories of tourism destinations. The article analyzes the main environmental problems of the development of the tourism infrastructure and tourism industry in general, which makes it necessary to substantiate the set of mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism territories. Furthermore, it systematizes the regulatory, economic, control, and voluntary mechanisms, the utilization of which will ensure environmental safety of tourism destinations. The regulatory mechanisms make it possible to reduce the impacts of tourism activities on various destinations by establishing and regulating the throughput capacity potential of a territory, as well as by setting the limits and boundaries for the activities of the enterprises providing tourism services, with the help of the procedure of assessing the impacts of tourism activities on the environment and monitoring of the state of the environment and sustainability of territories. The economic mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations include the following: financial stimulation of tourism entities, financial support of the projects aimed at implementing of eco-projects in tourism, balanced tax policy, and procedures for subsidizing of balanced tourism projects. The main control mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations consist in the implementation of the actions to control the activities of tourism entities based on their compliance with environmental legislation. The major voluntary mechanisms for ensuring environmental safety of tourism destinations include the following: introduction of environmental management into the general management structure and training of tourists and local residents. Summing up what has been said, the usage of the set of mechanisms will ensure environmental safety of the territories of tourism destinations.</p> <p> </p> Y. Korobeynukova Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/453 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF BIOSTIMULANTS ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL STATE OF OIL-CONTAMINATED SOILS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/451 <p>The application of scientifically based approaches to the intensification of natural processes of self-purification of soils from petroleum products is becoming increasingly important. Bio cleaning is an effective, environmentally sound method of improving the environment. The purpose of the article is to establish patterns of changes in the sanitary-microbiological condition of the soil after oil pollution and to determine effective approaches to the intensification of natural processes of soil self-cleaning.</p> <p>In the work the sanitary-bacteriological research of the oil-contaminated soil on sanitary-indicative microorganisms was carried out; assessed sanitary-microbiological condition of the studied soil samples to identify qualitative changes in ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms; the efficiency of biostimulants application for intensification of natural processes of self - purification of oil-contaminated soils is substantiated.</p> <p>Methods of culture on nutrient media were used for microbiological research, the degree of soil contamination was assessed by determining the total microbial count and quantitative analysis of the main indicator microorganisms.</p> <p>It was determined that soil samples after oil inflow are heavily contaminated by sanitary and bacteriological indicators. To stimulate the development of certain groups of biotransformers, it is effective to introduce special sorbents that contain a range of substances necessary to accelerate the growth of microorganisms that destroy the oil. It was found that the use of digestate of biogas plants as a biostimulator allows improving the physical and water-air properties of the soil, and acts as an effective biostimulator to increase biological activity due to the content of macronutrients.</p> <p> </p> I. Ablieieva, L. Pliatsuk, I. Trunova, O. Yakhnenko, І. Berezhna Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/451 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 APPLICATION OF WASTE OF TREATMENT FACILITIES TO IMPROVE BARRIER RECLAMATION https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/457 <p>Today, the problem of oil pollution of soils in our country is little solved, and work on cleaning oil pollution with the help of microorganisms is not coordinated, their scientific and technological level is low. Thus, the problem of contamination of soils with oil and oil products is more acute than ever.</p> <p>There are mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical methods of cleaning soils from oil pollution, effective only at a certain level of pollution. Typically, at least 1% of the oil in the soil is often associated with additional contamination and provides complete purification. Contamination of soils with oil and oil products is one of the most difficult problems of ecology and environmental protection. To date, technologies for bioremediation of oil-contaminated areas are being successfully developed, but its level does not help to cope with the problem locally, quickly and economically.</p> <p>Our work is devoted to the development of an effective method of reclamation of areas involved in oil and gas production. In particular, those areas that are allocated for the placement of barns and are one of the most polluted at the end of mining. The solution to the problem is achieved through the use of a modified barn design, as well as the use of sorbent from waste water treatment plants.</p> Taras Kachala, S. Kachala, Ya. Adamenko, K. Karavanovych Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/457 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF ASH FROM TPPS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BUILDING MATERIALS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/458 <p>The article analyzes the problems of environmental pollution and promising directions for the disposal of waste from the production of coal-fired thermal power plants. Possible ways of managing solid waste from coal-fired power plants have been identified in order to preserve our environment. Potential possibilities of using ash in agriculture, in the design of the roadway, in the production of bricks, as an integral component in Portland cement are considered. The presence of valuable components in the ash creates undoubted prerequisites for its recycling. The authors carried out a study of the chemical composition, physical, mechanical and quality indicators of ash - waste products of the Burshtyn TPP to study the possibility of using it as a raw material in the production of building materials. It has been determined that according to the chemical composition of the fly ash of the Burshtyn thermal power plant (BuTPP), more than 70% consists of silicium and aluminum oxides. The assessment of the quality characteristics of ash was carried out by calculation with the determination of the basicity modulus, silicate modulus and quality factor. It was determined that BuTPP ash belongs to acidic, latently active. It is proposed to use ash as active mineral additives in raw mixes to obtain ash concrete. For this purpose, a study of the rheological characteristics of a mortar mixture of ash-cement porous concrete compositions was carried out, the influence of the composition of ash on the processes of hydration of cement components was investigated, and the quantitative characteristics of this effect were established. The strength of aerated concrete massif was determined depending on the type of raw mixture. The results obtained made it possible to develop technologies for replacing cement with ash in the composition of aerated concrete, to optimize its raw material composition; to determine the kinetic characteristics of hardening processes by introducing chemical additives NaCl and Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> to accelerate hydration processes.</p> G. Koshlak, A. Pavlenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/458 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ANALYSING SYSTEM OF THE WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/461 <p>The article analyzes the state of the waste management system of electrical and electronic equipment in Ukraine. The involved WEEE in Ukraine is assessed by analyzing the electronics market and statistics on waste generation in the industrial and commercial sectors. The main component of WEEE in Ukraine is plastic (30%), as well as medium (20%) and iron (8%). That in Ukraine about 28 thousand tons of WEEE are created (technological equipment - 60%, accumulators and batteries - 21%, household and office appliances - 13%, components of electrical equipment - 4%, fluorescent lamps - 2%.). According to these data, they are underestimated due to the lack of a WEEE monitoring system in the constructed sector. 128 Ukrainian enterprises can collect certain types of WEEE that contain hazardous compounds (batteries, fluorescent lamps, etc.). 22 of them are licensed to use this waste. All other WEEE is not covered. 2 oblasts do not have any enterprises that could add to the management of WEEE. Existing businesses cannot recycle the right people to reach the waste that has already accumulated and will continue to increase. Thus, Ukraine needs the adoption of relevant legislation at the national level, the creation of WEEE reception points, assistance and control over the treatment of WEEE enterprises, as well as the creation of an effective system for monitoring WEEE flows. It is necessary to inform the population about the WEEE school for the environment and further and about human health. Carry out a campaign to promote separate collection of content and the need to separate electrical appliances from solid waste.</p> <p> </p> L. Hlavatska Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/461 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ANALYSIS OF RUBBER WASTE DISPOSAL DIRECTIONS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/462 <p>Rubber products are widely used in all sectors of the economy. Unvulcanized and vulcanized rubber waste is generated during production. Part of the waste is returned to the production process for the production of consumer goods. During operation, rubber products lose their consumer properties and become waste. Natural and synthetic rubber and various additives are used for the production of rubber products. This requires optimization of rubber waste disposal methods. The analysis of rubber waste disposal directions has showed that it is necessary to take into account the rubber content and the presence of various additives when justifying their disposal direction. It has been established that tires are the most popular waste. These wastes are disposed in Ukraine. At the same time, the level of their disposal remains low. The problem of disposal of non-industrial rubber waste is complicated by the lack of an effective system of separate waste collection. This is due to the lack of appropriate regulatory and legal framework, practical mechanisms for the implementation of separate waste collection in different types of settlements.</p> <p>The methods of rubber waste disposal are analyzed. Their advantages and disadvantages are identified. The state of rubber waste disposal in Ukraine is analyzed and the key problems are identified.</p> <p>Studies results indicate a problem of collecting rubber products that have lost their consumer properties. This is due to the lack of effective mechanisms for separate waste collection. The organization of stationary waste collection points in urban settlements and mobile points in large cities and rural settlements is proposed.</p> <p> </p> М. Orfanova, T. Yatsyshyn, T. Bondarchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/462 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY UTILIZATION OF SOLID WASTE https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/465 <p>The review of existing technologies of solid waste utilization by methods of thermal disposal of garbage with the prospect of using thermal energy for industry and communal needs of the population is carried out. A promising method of thermal utilization of solid waste is the technology of formation of dry stable residue (SSS), with the subsequent use of the obtained fuel for industrial needs as an alternative to fossil fuels. With the help of CVD technology the formation of the most dangerous by-products - dioxanes and furans, with 100% utilization of solid waste is excluded.</p> V. Chupa, O. Karpash, A. Yavorskyi, P. Raiter Raiter Copyright (c) 2021 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/465 Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0300