Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> en-US (Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova)) (Тарас Качала (Taras Kachala)) Mon, 07 Feb 2022 09:20:40 +0200 OJS 60 MANAGEMENT OF ECOLOGICAL PROJECTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ACTION OF PHYSICAL FACTORS OF DANGER FORMATION <p>The mechanism of monitoring of formation of ecological danger in the conditions of action of physical factors is offered. The analysis of the scientific works devoted to research of ways and methods of decrease in level of natural-technogenic loading on environment and its separate components is carried out.</p> <p>The ranges of functioning of ecological danger in the social and economic zone are established: background danger, danger of insignificant level, acceptable danger, unacceptable danger, catastrophic danger. The types of stability of the state of the socio-economic zone (SEZ) under conditions of equilibrium, homeostasis and stationary regime are considered. The model of deformation of the state of ecological safety under the influence of physical and other anthropogenic factors is constructed. The model is based on the decision of three separate problems: the analysis of functioning of ecological danger in the presence of set of its components of various genesis; improving the state of ecological safety in terms of the complex impact of its sources; formation of elements of ecological safety in natural and anthropogenic reservoirs. It includes a system of four analytical dependences (description of the possibility of transition of the socio-economic zone from one to another stationary state according to the characteristics and level of anthropogenic factors; characteristics of the state of pollution of the aquatic component of the ecosystem depending on risk of influence of physical factors, determination of the combined condition of variational solution of separate tasks concerning quality of system of management of ecological projects) and boundary conditions of its existence. The results of the study show that the use of the model of deformation of the state of ecological safety under the influence of physical and other anthropogenic factors makes it possible to develop and implement sound solutions for the management of environmental projects.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> V. Shmandii, O. Kharlamova, I. Soloshych, T. Ryhas Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION WITHIN THE URBAN SYSTEMOF IVANO-FRANKIVSKY MTG (ON THE EXAMPLE OF PASICHNA AND VOVCHYNETS DISTRICT) <p>The article presents the results of measurements of levels of electromagnetic radiation of industrial frequency within the urban system of Ivano - Frankivsk, namely in the Pasichna district, which includes 8 streets. Suburban areas were also explored - the village of Vovchynets, where 4 routes were passed. The authors of the publication describe the method of measuring the levels of electromagnetic radiation and further processing of the measured parameters. Based on the presented results, maps and graphs of the distribution of electromagnetic radiation levels within a certain area are constructed. Domestic legal bases for assessing the impact of electromagnetic radiation within urban areas are presented. Based on the described regulatory requirements, the results of measurements of the electromagnetic field strength of industrial frequency are compared with compliance with state sanitary norms and regulations.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> urban system, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic field strength, maximum permissible level.</p> K. Dzudzylo, T. Kundelska Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 QUATERNARY DEPOSITS AND ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE ICE AGE PARK IN CARPATHIAN REGION, UKRAINE <p>An international geopark "The Park of Ice Age" located near the Starunia village in Bohorodchany district of Ivano-Frankivsk region is world-famous for being a paleontological site of Pleistocene fauna of the woolly rhinoceroses and mammoth (the Eemian interglacial period- 46-10 000 years ago according to radiocarbon dating C14) and for its mud volcano which is unique in the Carpathian region, This is a geological nature monument with an area of 60 hectares where abandoned ozokerite mine and oil and gas exploratory boreholes are presented. The detailed investigations carried out in the years 2004 - 2009 by Ukrainian-Polish expeditions were focused on discoveries of possible new sites of fauna fossils and human remains of European early modern humans (EEMH). The future discoveries at the paleontological site of Starunia are extremely important. They intend to carry out ecological assessment of soil, surface and stream waters, atmospheric air, snow, ashes of meadow grasses, radiological screening, and geo-radar sensing to find new locations of extinct mammals. The Starunia area meets all the requirements of a geopark according to UNESCO standards and concepts. The first research findings (1907) are connected with the remains of woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, horse, roe deer and other Pleistocene mammals which had been found in the ozokerite mine at the depth of 12 m near Starunia (Bohorodchany district, Ivano-Frankivsk region). In 1914 the scientists from Lviv (Ukraine) and Krakow (Poland) fully appreciated these discoveries and published a set of articles and a monograph. In 1929 the members of the expedition of Skill Academy (Krakow, Poland) found the remains of three more woolly rhinoceroses in the ozokerite mine at the depth of 17 m. Numerous bones of vertebrates (rodents), remains of mussels, a lot of species of insects, beetles, parasitic worms, fleas, butterflies, spiders, snails, vascular plants, mosses, seeds and branches of dwarf birch (Betula Nana), alder (Alnus glutinosa), and other fossil of tundra flora were also discovered. Polish scientists organized detailed investigations of flora and fauna around Starunia, their results were published in articles but the World War II suspended this process. The investigations around Starunia intensified the comprehensive study of stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, geochronology and other aspects of the Quaternary Period. In 1932 there was established the International Geological Congress (the International Union of Quaternary Study) by INQUA in Leningrad. The main methodological principals of this study dealt with the investigations around Starunia.</p> O. Adamenko, R. Michajluk, K. Radlovskaya, M. Mosiuk Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF CAPABILITIES AND EXPERIENCE OF USING THE GOOGLE EARTH ENGINE PLATFORM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING CHALLENGES <p>The purpose of the study is to assess the potential of using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform for processing remote sensing data in solving various problems of environmental monitoring and in other areas of applied geoinformatics. GEE is an open cloud platform that allows providing the analysis and visualization of large-scale geospatial datasets for scientific, educational, public, governmental and commercial organizations. GEE provides open-source tools for geospatial analysis, as well as access to a public catalogue of raster and vector data, which includes satellite images, meteorological, geophysical observation data, and more else. In the paper, the structure and functions of the platform were analyzed, as well as the possibilities of obtaining open data of remote sensing, provided by the GEE catalogue, for the regional environmental monitoring problems solution. A systematic review of current scientific publications was carried out, which confirmed the wide range of applications of the platform by scientists from different countries for the analysis of the environment both regionally and globally. One of the most common types of tasks implemented by GEE is the calculation of normalized difference indices used for mapping vegetation, crops, land cover, biodiversity and monitoring of fires, droughts and other negative natural and man-made processes. One of the most common types of tasks implemented by GEE is the calculation of normalized difference indices used for mapping vegetation, crops, land cover, biodiversity and monitoring of fires, droughts and other negative natural and man-made processes. For the studied territory of the Carpathian region, an assessment of the time period of the available observation data, coverage of satellite images, their spatial resolution, decoding characteristics was performed. According to the data of multi-channel space images, the normalized difference indices NDVI, MNDWI, NDBI were calculated using the GEE code editor and JavaScript programming language, and the obtained results were visualized.</p> L. Davybida Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MANY LAYER DATABASES FOR OPTIMAL STRUCTURING OF ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION <p>A characteristic feature of modern society is the rapid increase in the amount of information, increasing requirements for its accuracy and timeliness. Traditional methods of storing, retrieving and processing information no longer meet modern requirements. Paper technology has actually exhausted its capabilities to improve methods of working with information. This requires faster and more efficient methods.</p> <p>In the process of studying the structuring of information related to the impact of man-made objects on the environment, or with changes that occur in the environment for certain reasons. There is a great inconvenience with the optimization of both the information that we enter into the existing database and the data that need to be processed to establish dependencies or demonstrated in the form of logical visualization.</p> <p>In particular, it is problematic to work with information that involves communication and a large number of factors or elements. An example of such issues is the formation of a database and further work with information on electromagnetic pollution. These factors have led to the creation of a universal database that would provide maximum optimization for working with information that is closely related to multifactorial. Taking into account that the problem of electromagnetic effects on the components of the environment is becoming more relevant every day due to the unrestrained technological process, we decided to take into account the information package from the data on EM pollution.</p> <p>After analyzing the existing types and structures of databases, we were able to identify the main positive and negative features of the models. Based on in-depth analysis and the desire to create an effective model of information structuring, we were able to present a new version of multilayer databases for efficient processing of large amounts of data.</p> Taras Kachala, N. Moskalchuk, K. Karavanovych Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 SEASONAL OSCILLATIONS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATER FROM SOURCES AND WELLS IN THE CARPATHIAN TOURIST REGION <p>The Carpathian National Nature Park (CNPP) is a place of accumulation of a large number of explored underground sources of drinking water, a significant number of tourist flows, widespread decentralized water supply system, which together with the specifics of the mountain region and seasonality form relevant for regular monitoring. Underground springs and wells are the water supply for residential buildings in the region. Monitoring studies of the physicochemical composition of drinking water from underground sources, wells and wells is necessary, because in the selected region we studied drinking water samples for nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, ammonium, determined total mineralization and determined pH, analyzed the results and based on them, conclusions were drawn about the impact of seasonal changes on groundwater supply.</p> <p>Seasonal changes are clearly expressed in the NNP during the observation period September-November during the low tide and April-May during the minor floods of 2021. We observe an increase in the content of nitrates and fluctuations in the content of phosphates and ammonium, in some studied water samples, nitrate levels are much higher in the limited period than floods. There are deviations from the norm of pH of several tested samples and low total mineralization of water from natural sources, which may have a negative impact on human health with long-term consumption.</p> <p>Possible factors of influence of decentralized drainage and anthropogenic load of tourist establishments on the potential increase of groundwater pollution are given, it is established that seasonal fluctuations occur primarily due to changes in the main food sources and denitrification processes.</p> I. Klymchuk, M. Korchemlyuk, L. Arkhypova Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PUBLIC AWARENESS, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION ON MICROPLASTICS POLLUTION AROUND LAGOS LAGOON <p>Microplastic pollution is now globally flagged as a foremost menace to livelihoods, biodiversity, and public health due the pervasive nature of plastic wastes, poor knowledge of its ecological impact and poor attitude towards sustainable waste management practices. Hence, this paper explores public awareness, knowledge, attitude and perception on Microplastic pollution and its ecological health implication through a survey data collected from residents, students, fishermen and local tourist around Lagos Lagoon, a significant area in Lagos. Findings revealed that though awareness on microplastics was apparently high (over 50%), however, public knowledge was fairly acceptable and poor perception on Microplastic pollution was observed. Respondents (with a mean attitude score of 3.40±1.485) generally shows a good attitude towards learning more on this subject and a shared commitment to support government through cleanup volunteering and advocacy. &nbsp;&nbsp;In light of this findings, this study recommends that government, academia and relevant stakeholders should intensify efforts to educate the public more on issues of public health importance through massive campaigns, learned community activities and strategies that may reinforce positive environmental attitude.</p> Koleayo Omoyajowo, Morufu Raimi, Temitope Waleola, Oluwaseun Odipe, Amos Ogunyebi Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGICAL ETHICS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <p>The article elaborates the issues of the role, place and significance at the present stage of human development considering one of the main sections of philosophy - environmental ethics, a science that studies the moral aspect of the relationship of a person (society, humanity) to nature. It is shown that at the beginning of the 70s of the last century, due to the growth of social injustice (unequal distribution of income and the growth of poverty in developing countries), as well as environmental degradation, which negatively affected human health, in the advanced minds of mankind, it became necessary to develop a fundamentally new strategy of mankind development - the development of society should take place inevitably with nature preservation. To define this strategy, the concept of "sustainable development" was introduced. The article outlines the five main principles of sustainable development concept . Also the implementation of this concept in Ukraine is considered on the example of the analysis of the Sustainable Development Strategy program "Ukraine -2020". The strategy provides for four main vectors of motion: a vector of development; safety vector; vector of responsibility; vector of pride. To implement the Strategy, it was decided to develop, adopt and implement 62 reforms and programs, of which 10 are priority ones, and key indicators have been identified for each vector of movement. The implementation of the sustainable development strategy has a moral content and is impossible without a shift in the value orientations of people and this is one of the tasks of environmental ethics.</p> V. Bloshchynska, M. Karpash, O. Karpash Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on single-use of plastics in some American Firms: Policy Insights <p>As COVID-19 continues to present unimaginable threats to the future of the environment, it is not<br />impossible to rethink that the continual existence of human race is at stake. More than 60% of toxic<br />wastes released to the environment are largely contributed by manufacturing and service firms. Hence, this present study examined the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on corporate waste management program among selected American firms. A total of 42 notable firms across 3 cities in the US (Detroit, Atlanta and Houston) were successfully interviewed on their choices to reduce, reuse, recycle and recover their industrial waste since the outbreak of COVID-19. More than 80% of firms studied often generate plastics as waste; out of which, all firms (100%) agreed that COVID-19 encumbered their choices to manage plastic wastes. This study reasoned that COVID-19 will undoubtedly contribute to plastic pollution and its associated ecological risk in the US if appropriate measures are not painstakingly implemented. This study therefore recommends that Government and relevant stakeholders should restructure existing waste<br />management policies and sensitize American firms on grave dangers of plastic pollution and other toxic<br />wastes in the environment. Meanwhile, this study has great implications for countries in the developing world. This is because developing countries are already mired with the challenges of managing plastic wastes in the pre- COVID-19 era and are further overwhelmed with the unprecedented plastic waste generation during COVID-19. Considering that in Africa and other developing nation, standard waste<br />management technologies and waste emergency policies to curb the pandemic is lacking or insufficient, and hence suggesting they may witness more serious impact of plastic pollution. Government at all tiers should not only make laudable waste management policies to curb environmental pollution, but must show sincerity of purpose and political-will to implement and enforce these polices to curtail impeding global impact of plastic pollution aggravated by COVID-19 pandemic.</p> KOLEAYO OMOYAJOWO, SUNDAY AMIOLEMEN, Benjamin MWADI MAKENGO, AMOS OGUNYEBI Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 MEASURES TO PROTECT THE PRINCIPAL CARPATHIA FROM DISASTERABLE FLOODS BY ANALYSIS OF THEIR CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES IN 2008 AND 2020 <p>On January 1, 2021, the Center for Forecasting and Prevention of Technogenic and Hydroecological Danger of Prykarpattia was established within the IFNTUNG by the order of the Rector. In recent years, two floods in the Carpathians have been catastrophic: one on July 23-28, 2008, and the second on June 20-24, 2020. The article considers the main causes and consequences of catastrophic floods for the Carpathians</p> <p>The consequences of the catastrophic flood of 2008 were the death of 30 people, flooding of 41 thousand houses, 34 thousand hectares of agricultural land and the destruction of 671 km of roads.</p> <p>The disaster of 2020 in Prykarpattia was more sudden than the floods of 2008. During June 20-23, heavy rainfall was observed in the region. During these two days alone, 113% of the monthly rainfall fell. This caused a sharp rise in water and strong currents, especially in the mountainous areas of Prykarpattia.</p> <p>The root cause of the emergency can be considered heavy rain cyclones moving to Ukraine from South-Western Europe, which caused heavy, sometimes very heavy rainfall and the formation of catastrophic rain floods in the Dniester and Prut river basins.</p> <p>One of the main causes of emergencies was the implementation of uncontrolled and not provided with appropriate technological processes of deforestation in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, unauthorized extraction of sand and gravel in riverbeds and coastal protection zones. Another important reason was that in recent years no state program for the construction of dams and river fortifications, as well as the reconstruction of storm sewers, which have been in operation for a long time without any upgrades, has been properly funded.</p> <p>Based on the analysis, measures to reduce the negative effects of catastrophic floods are proposed.</p> R. Mykhailiuk Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PROJECTING AND DESIGN OF TOURIST COMPLEXES <p>The principles of sustainable development and the foundations of environmental protection are a priority for the development of the tourism industry, so hotels should promote a responsible attitude to the environment among vacationers, restore ecosystems and use recycled materials. The purpose of the work is to create a project and business plan of an ecological 5-star hotel and restaurant complex in Bukovel, taking into account innovative technologies to ensure the safe stay of guests in the complex. Ecohotel is a temporary accommodation facility, which, on the one hand, provides tourists with a wide range of services, and on the other - minimizes the negative impact on the environment. Greening of hotel services in modern conditions is of great importance due to the need to preserve the environment, growing demand for environmentally friendly services and goods. to characterize the functional organization of the complex; create a landscape design of the selected area of ​​the complex; to develop the planning organization of housing stock; substantiate the planning of administrative premises and areas of cultural and household services; develop a business plan for the project. To achieve this goal the following methods were used: analysis and synthesis, method of theoretical generalization, systematization of domestic and foreign literature, method of expert evaluations, calculation method, modeling, design. For the first time, an eco-friendly hotel project has been developed, taking into account the latest technologies that can ensure the safety of tourists while on vacation. The results of the study can be used to meet the growing demand of tourists for accommodation in comfortable and safe conditions in the resort of Bukovel.</p> S. Kachala, L. Arkhypova, T. Guzii Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 IMPROVEMENT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY THE OILSEEDS PROCESSING ENTERPRISES <p>The dangerous wastewater pollutants from oilseeds processing enterprises are indicators of organic contamination and the content of a large amount of fats and suspended substances. Fats and organic wastewater pollutants which enter the centralized sewage systems of the settlements form deposits on the inner wall of the pipes, what disrupt the uninterrupted and efficient operation of sewage network. That is why the water utilities establish strict requirements for the quality composition of wastewater which are discharged into the municipal sewer network from enterprises and organizations. The purpose of the paper is to improve the technology of wastewater treatment from oilseeds processing enterprises through the use of aerated grease traps and coagulants to reduce the fat content to standards that meet the requirements for the wastewater discharge from these industrial facilities into the centralized sewage systems of the settlements. The proposed wastewater treatment facility performs three main functions: extraction of the fat dissolved in water and sediments, which are in a suspended state; reduction of the amount of organic pollution and bottom sediments; the absence of the appearance of putrid odors. The introduction of the proposed technology for treatment of fat-containing wastewater from oilseeds processing enterprises allow to significantly reduce the content of fats up to 10<strong>&nbsp;</strong>mg/dm<sup>3</sup> that consistent with standards of the discharge of wastewater of these enterprises into the municipal sewage networks and treatment facilities of the settlements. In addition, in wastewater after purification according the proposed technology, the content of suspended solids and organic pollutants is reduced. This will allow preventing the formation of fatty deposits on the walls of pipes, ensuring the uninterrupted and efficient operation of the sewage networks and treatment facilities at the stations of the biological treatment of municipal wastewater.</p> D. Kulikova Copyright (c) 2022 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200