Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> en-US ebzr.nung@gmail.com (Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova)) taraskachala@gmail.com (Тарас Качала (Taras Kachala)) Tue, 17 Nov 2020 13:54:24 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CONSERVATION OF NATURE RESERVATION DIFFERENCES ALONG THE Dniester River - DNISTER NECKLACE PROJECT https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/428 <p>The Dniester River flows a distance of 1362 km from the Carpathians to the Black Sea. On its way the river crosses several natural landscape and geographical zones, characteristic of the whole Ukraine. They are a glacial and aquaglacial plain of the ancient continental Scandinavian glacier; a lake-swamp-river forest lowland of Polissia; an aeolian-deluvial forest-steppe highland of Prykarpattia and Podillia; the mountain-forest Carpathians with the traces of ancient valley glaciation; an ancient Sarmatian Great Barrier Reef of the Tethys Ocean; a forest-steppe plain of the Prut-Dniester interfluve area and Podillia, and an estuary-sea plain of the Dniester estuary and the Black Sea. In each area there are nature reserves and objects that embody the characteristic landscape features of a particular zone. They are “strung” on the Dniester river course like beads on a necklace. The history of the Dniester during 3 million years of its existence after the retreat of the Sarmatian Sea (from the Pliocene to the present) was reconstructed based on the alluvium of terraces, in which the representative complexes of fauna of large and small mammals, shells, ostracods, paleocarpological and palynological complexes were found, the absolute age was determined by radiocarbon and thermoluminescent methods. To preserve the natural wildlife diversity, it is necessary to study each nature reserve and object in detail, ecologically assess the geological environment, terrain relief, atmospheric air and hydrosphere, soil and vegetation, fauna, sociosphere and technosphere, and develop the environmental safety measures depending on natural trends in the development of landscape areas and modern anthropogenic impact.</p> О. Adamenko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/428 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 RESOURCE CONSERVATION LOGISTICS AS A TOOL OF WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIMIZATION WITHIN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/426 <p>The article considers the issues of resource conservation through the prism of the sustainable development concept. The place of resource conservation in achieving the goals of sustainable development, the tasks that meet the goals of sustainable development, the achievement of which is possible through the implementation of the principles of resource conservation in various human life spheres.</p> <p>Ukraine's economy is resource- and energy-intensive, generating a large amount of waste. Waste retains its original material substance and a certain part of its residual value, so it can be considered as a source of secondary material resources. The specific features of waste generated during the product life cycle and can be returned to the production cycle in the form of secondary raw materials are considered. Attention is paid to the rational, balanced use of waste, which leads to resource conservation and allows to achieve the goals of sustainable development.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed on the priorities of state policy in the direction of resource conservation: optimizing the use of natural resources and reducing energy consumption, minimizing the negative impact on the environment by moving to a model of green (circular) economy. The connection of resource saving with the processes included in the frameworks of the circular economy is determined.</p> <p>Resource-saving measures within the functional areas of the micrologistics system are characterized. The structure of ecologically-oriented logistics is shown, one of the directions of which is resource saving logistics.</p> <p>The characteristic of the directions of logistics influencing resource saving is given, and their objects of research are defined: logistics of resource saving, reversible logistics, logistics of return flows, logistics of waste, logistics of secondary resources.</p> tetiana kovtun Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/426 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 DUST POLLUTION AND DOSE ASSESSMENT FROM FROM URANIUM MINING WASTES DUMPS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/424 <p>The environmental impact from uranium mining waste dumps is analyzed. The waste dumps are represented with grinded rocks of albitite formation enriched with uranium, thorium and heavy metals. Their qualitative and quantitative characteristics are given. The calculated area of ​​the heaps is based on space images of the Sentinel-2 satellite and SRTM terrestrial surface data, which is more than 260,000 m<sup>2</sup> and serves as a source of terrestrial atmosphere dust pollution. It is shown that the radiation risk for humans is maximum near the boundary of the heaps. It was established that today a person can receive an irradiation dose of ~ 11 μber / year due to dust pollution. The maximum (albeit insignificantly small) radiation risk is expected near the dumps of the Smolinska mine, slightly lower - near the dumps of the Ingulska mine, even much lower - near the dumps of the Novokostyantynivska mine.</p> Tamara Dudar, Valeriy Vitko, Grygoriy Kovalenko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/424 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION OF RADIATION INDICATORS OF Cs-137 AND Sr-90 AS PART OF THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FRESH WATER IF USED OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/421 <p>The analytical relations of rating water by pollution categories are presented. The case of water contamination with radioactive nuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was considered. The relations establish the functional relationships between the measured values of radionuclide specific activity and permissible radionuclide levels in the inland surface fresh waters. The parameters of measurement procedures (MP) and control procedures (CP) and metrological characteristics of the spectrometer were used as variables. The influence of MP and CP parameters and spectrometer characteristics on assigning water to the corresponding category was investigated.<br />The expected values of the specific activity of 137Cs and 90Sr were calculated. The case of SEB 01–70 and SEB 01–150 spectrometers was considered. The sensitivity of spectrometers to 137Cs was determined within the range of 0.817–2.310 Bq per sample. The minimum water quantity that can be used to analyze the radionuclide content was determined for each pollution category. The impossibility of determining the specific activity of 137Cs in waters of Categories 1 and 2 by using only these spectrometer models was substantiated. The activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters of Categories 1 and 2 can be determined by the combined use of beta and gamma spectrometers. To determine the activity of 90Sr in surface water with low radionuclide activity, it was proposed using the controlled cation exchange mode in the preparation of load. In this case, the saturation state of the absorber ionite is controlled by determining the concentration of Ca cations in the water that has passed through the absorber.<br />The obtained results are the basis for determining the technological parameters of spectrometric measurement of 137Cs and 90Sr activity. The algorithm for assessing the measured values of radionuclide activity and comparing them with the permissible levels can be used for other spectrometers. In such a situation, the assessment and determination of technological parameters is carried out using the data of the metrological certification of spectrometers. Depending on the purpose of study, in cases of low activity levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, it is also advisable to optimize the methods and choice of measuring means.</p> Валерій Сінченко Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/421 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION RISK METHOD https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/420 <p>A new approach is proposed to develop a method of comprehensive assessment of life-threatening risks caused by increasing levels of anthropogenic loading, increasing the extent of degradation of land and water resources, changing landscapes, increasing the emissions and discharges of pollutants, depletion and recovery. The purpose of the study is to develop a method of comprehensive risk assessment of the living areas of individual territories, taking into account the impact of a set of natural, environmental, radiological factors inherent in the object of study. Achieving this goal will allow determination of the determinants of specific factors of health of the population and the natural environment, which is important for solving the problem of improving the health of the population and the ranking of areas for health and environmental risk. The estimation of life risks in the event of possible accidents at chemical-hazardous objects is based on the results of forecasting the probable consequences of such accidents, which is carried out taking into account the volume of hazardous chemical emissions, as well as the actual meteorological conditions. The prediction results determine the depth and area of ​​possible contamination, as well as the population that may be in the area]. Accidents at chemical hazardous objects with the release of hazardous chemicals occur due to industrial, structural, technological or operational reasons, or under the influence of external factors that cause damage to technological equipment, devices, structures, vehicles, etc. Based on the analysis of methods of risk assessment from emergencies, the traditional approach to the estimation of life risks at the object and regional level from possible accidents at chemically dangerous objects is improved, based on the results of forecasting the probability of accidental release of toxic substances and the negative consequences of an accident due to accidents. emissions and current meteorological conditions.</p> Василь Триснюк Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/420 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR INVESTIGATING THE PROCESS OF CREATING PROTECTIVE MECHANICAL COLMATATION OF FRESH WATER FORMATIONS https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/429 <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> When drilling oil and gas wells we often encounter&nbsp; fresh water formations occurring at relatively shallow depths and their penetration is accompanied by toxic drilling mud filtrate invasion from an open wellbore. The protection of fresh water formations against contamination is possible by creating protective mechanical colmatation in the process of drilling in with the use of environmentally-friendly components based on substances of organic origin in drilling mud formulations. Underground fresh water is found practicaly on the whole territory of Ukraine. Investigated was the impact of dynamic processes during drilling in formations on the strength and blocking ability of the protective zone against drilling mud toxic filtrate invasion in the process of continuing drilling for intermediate casing string after uncovering fresh water formations. The experimental setup for research of the processes of protective mechanical colmatation of fresh water formations was designed and made.&nbsp; Researches on filtration resistance change of the created zones of protective colmatation under the conditions of hydropulse load action on the bottomhole zone of the formation in the course of drilling were carried out. The formulation of envionmentally-friendly drilling mud is offered.<br><br><br></p> Андрій Зельманович Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/429 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 MODELING THE PROCESS OF DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IN THE WATER OF THE RIGHT TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER SVICHA https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/423 <p>The pollution of surface water by oil products within the framework of production activities of oil and gas enterprises, especially in case of emergency spills, is an acute environmental problem. The danger is that petroleum products are rapidly spreading, penetrating surface, groundwater, and water intake structures that draw water for population water supply. The formed oil film on the surface of the water prevents the flow of oxygen and leads to the death of all living things in the reservoir.</p> <p>The work is devoted to the study of the process of distribution of oil products in the water of the right tributary of the river Svicha of the Dniester basin. The main factors contributing to the migration of petroleum products in the aquatic environment were considered.</p> <p>Experimental studies of the water quality of the river Luschava on the content of petroleum products as a result of an emergency have been carried out. As a result, the excess of petroleum products in the water of the river Lushchava was found to be 70-160 times at the rate of 0,05 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>. For the first time, a spatial model of the distribution of petroleum products in water has been created for the visual assessment of water quality in the studied river section. A regression analysis has been performed to prove the relationship between the content of the o il products and the distance of their distribution in the river Lushava. It has been estimated that at a distance of 1.2 km the content of petroleum products will reach the limit of maximum permissible concentration. The results of the study can be used to predict the self-purification of surface water and quick management decisions on the location of oil pollution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> V. Hryniuk Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/423 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT AS A MEANS OF RECREATIONAL AND TOURIST GROWTH OF THE UNITED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES IN IVANO-FRANKIVSK OBLAST https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/427 <p>At present, the development of tourism industry is taking on greater importance. Tourism is among the five largest sectors of economy in terms of contribution to the world gross domestic product. It provides a multiplier effect in the related sectors of economy – transport, trade, construction, agriculture, finance – and is a kind of catalyst for the socio-economic development. A developed tourist infrastructure is the most important factor for the development of tourism industry. Ivano-Frankivsk oblast has large natural and recreational, historical and cultural resources for tourism development. The united territorial communities were formed in the conditions of local self-government reform in Ukraine and received significant powers and financial resources. The communities can independently form and develop their tourism infrastructure through the construction and reconstruction of tourist facilities, creation of tourist investment centres, development of promotional materials about the existing tourist resources, international cooperation, and attraction of investors. Having assessed the tourist infrastructure of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, the authors found that due to its geographical location, rich natural, historical and cultural resources, the region has great potential for the development of tourism. There are many tourism entities in the oblast – tour operators and travel agents. It was established that most of them operate in the oblast centre and large cities. The oblast has a good hotel base, but there are a large number of accommodation facilities that operate unofficially. The analysis of transport infrastructure has showed that the oblast has long stretches of roads and good railway connections, but some roads are in poor condition. The oblast has problems with the development of air transport due to the underdeveloped infrastructure of the oblast airport and the lack of air connections in other cities.</p> S. Kachala, B. Ivanochko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/427 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 INVESTIGATION OF VULNERABILITY OF URBAN TERRITORIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF KALUSH https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/425 <p>В статье рассматривается актуальная тематика глобальных изменений климата и последствий для городских территорий, спровоцированных агрессивными климатическими факторами. Приведены причины возникновения интенсивных изменений климата, среди которых, кроме наличия значительного количества парниковых газов в атмосферном воздухе раскрывается мысль о циклических общепланетарных изменениях, которые провоцируют разрушительные последствия. Внимание обращается на экологические последствия климатических изменений, которые могут нести угрозу окружающей среде и жителям городских и прилегающих территорий. На примере города Калуш проведено исследование уязвимости городской территории к изменениям климата. Идентифицировано объекты, которые являются экологически опасными и негативное влияние от которых может возрасти при возникновении агрессивных климатических факторов. Проанализированы потенциальные экологически опасные последствия для окружающей среды в условиях агрессивных климатических факторов.</p> <p>Оценку уязвимости территории к изменениям климата проведено с помощью методики, основанной на определении ряда индикаторов, характеризующих устойчивость территорий к тепловому стрессу, к подтоплению, к стихийным гидрометеорологическим явлениям, к обеспечению питьевой водой, к инфекционным заболеваниям и аллергическим проявлениям, определяют уязвимость городских зеленых зон и энергетических систем города. Установлено, что наиболее уязвима территория города Калуш к подтоплению и обеспечению питьевой водой. Также высокий показатель наблюдается в группах индикаторов, характеризующих уязвимость городских зеленых зон, уязвимость территории к стихийных гидрометеорологических явлений, а также инфекционных заболеваний и аллергических проявлений. На основании определенных факторов уязвимости Калуша к климатическим изменениям предложен ряд рекомендаций, позволяющих предотвратить негативные последствия, обусловленные агрессивными метеорологическими явлениями.</p> <p>An actual subject of global climate changes and the and the consequences for urban areas, which are provoked by aggressive climate factors are considered in the article. The causes of intense climate change are given, among which, in addition to the presence of a significant amount of greenhouse gases in the air, the idea of ​​cyclical global changes that provoke devastating consequences is revealed. Attention is drawn to the environmental consequences of climate change, which can pose a threat to the environment and the inhabitants of urban and surrounding areas. On the example of the city of Kalush, a study of the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. Objects that are environmentally hazardous and the negative impact of which can increase in the event of aggressive climatic factors have been identified. Potential ecologically dangerous consequences for the environment in the conditions of aggressive climatic factors are analyzed.</p> <p>Assessment of the vulnerability of the territory to climate change was carried out using a methodology based on determining a number of indicators that characterize the resistance of areas to heat stress, flooding, natural hydrometeorological phenomena, drinking water supply, infectious diseases and allergic reactions, determine the vulnerability of urban green zones and energy systems of the city. It is established that the most vulnerable area of ​​the city of Kalush to flooding and drinking water supply. Also, a high rate is observed in the groups of indicators that characterize the vulnerability of urban green areas, the vulnerability of the territory to natural hydrometeorological phenomena, as well as infectious diseases and allergic reactions. Based on certain factors of Kalush's vulnerability to climate change, a number of recommendations have been proposed to prevent the negative consequences caused by aggressive meteorological phenomena.</p> Teodoziia Yatsyshyn, Marina Orfanova, Halyna Stelmakhovych, Oleksandr Yakovyna, Mariya Gubka, Yuliia Pishchak, Vladyslav Tsakhniv Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources https://ebzr.nung.edu.ua/index.php/ebzr/article/view/425 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200