Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources <ul> <li class="show">Fundamental Ecological Studies</li> <li class="show">Regional and Global Environmental Problems</li> <li class="show">Ecology and Environmental Protection</li> <li class="show">Environmental Problems of the Oil and Gas Industry</li> <li class="show">Technogenic and Industrial Safety</li> <li class="show">Balanced Use of Resources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Protection Technologies</li> <li class="show">Ecological Monitoring, Forecasting and Assessment of the Environment State</li> <li class="show">Ecological Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources</li> <li class="show">Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation</li> <li class="show">Ecological Education and Raising Environmental Awareness</li> <li class="show">Ecology-related Review Articles</li> </ul> en-US (Людмила Архипова (Lyudmila Arkhypova)) (Тарас Качала (Taras Kachala)) Fri, 28 Feb 2020 16:30:35 +0200 OJS 60 MONITORING PROGRAM OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES EFFECTS IN TOURIST ZONES <p>When developing a monitoring system of alternative energy sources (AES) in tourist zones the environmental, social, economic and positive or negative impacts should be taken into account. The implementation of such types of renewable energy sources as wind, solar and small hydro power plants is reasonable. The possible positive and negative environmental impacts of existing AES are forecasted. The main criterion for choosing the territory for tourism is environmental security, but it is necessary to take into account the socio-economic situation in the area, the satisfaction with life of local residents, etc., as they have an indirect impact on the development of tourism and recreation in the region. The main objects affected by the operation of alternative energy sources are identified: climate, surface water and groundwater, geology and soils, landscapes and biodiversity, population and socio-economic situation, cultural heritage. The factors that should be taken into account in determining the impacts associated with each scenario of renewable energy development are defined.</p> <p>The main stages of developing the impact monitoring system of AES on the tourist environment&nbsp; are proposed. These include defining: the present and future baseline conditions of the affected area; values, vulnerabilities and sensitivities of the affected objects (a point scale of sensitivity assessment); impact types that the affected object will be subjected to by each alternative (a score criteria evaluation, impact monitoring program); determining whether each impact is direct or indirect, far-reaching, cumulative, or caused by further development; determining the level of impact probability; stages of impact development (construction, operation or decommissioning), impact duration and frequency; irreversibility/reversibility and/or temporality/permanence of impact; impact intensity; spatial coverage of impact and its cross-border nature; determining whether the impact is positive or negative; the formulation of assumptions, restrictions and uncertainty factors associated with the evaluation; using all of the above mentioned information for the impact monitoring system of AES.</p> O. Pobigun Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD OF TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF SOILS BY HEAVY METALS FOR INFLUENCE AREAS OF BURSHTYN TPP <p>The article deals with the issues of environmental pollution and identifies the risks to public health and the environment due to the operation of coal thermal stations. The authors have analyzed the factors of the ecotoxicological effect on the individual components of the environment in the impact areas of Burshtyn TPP. The analysis results show that the main sources of environmental pollution in the territories are emissions and wastes generated during hardcoal combustion. It has been found out that the causes of mortality rates increase in the technogenic impact areas of TPP are the emissions of SOx, NOx, CO and ash fine particles. The calculated values of the average annual harmful emissions of TPP and the possible consequences of their impact on the people living in risk areas are represented. It has been found out that heavy metals, which are the components of ash particles contained in emissions and wastes, have a particularly dangerous and toxic environmental impact.</p> <p>A study of the soil for the content of heavy metals was carried out in the areas with mixed herbs, a plowed soil and soil under the trees. Soil samples were taken at a distance of 1.5–2 km from the TPP. Using the spectral and atomic absorption analysis, the content of bulk and mobile compounds of heavy metals, the regularities of their distribution, and their occurrence forms in soils and ash dumps were studied. It was established that around the pollution source the sections of soil were formed that contained Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn. The analysis results showed an uneven contamination of the areas around the TPP. An increased content of heavy metals was found in the studied soil samples. In the areas of plowed soil layers and under the trees, the excess of bulk concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and (Pb) was determined, so we concluded that these areas were unsuitable for growing agricultural crops. In the soils under trees and in the areas with mixed herbs, the content of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd did not exceed maximum permissible concentrations. The measures to improve the environmental safety of coal plants were recommended.</p> H. Koshlak Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RESTORATION METHODS OF PESTICIDE-POLLUTED SOILS <p>It is known that in modern agricultural production, huge quantities of crop protection chemicals, namely highly effective pesticide products, are used to intensify plant growth, prevent their diseases, increase their yield, in particular, of grain crops, to control rodents and weeds, etc.</p> <p>At the same time, in the territory of Ukraine there are still significant volumes of unused, failed pesticide products and mineral fertilizers, which have over time become unidentified dangerous chemical mixtures in dilapidated warehouses and storage facilities. As a result of the long-term application, they accumulate in soils and increase environmental hazards, that is, serious risks for humans and other living systems and the environment. Therefore, there is a pressing issue of creating highly efficient remediation and reclamation methods of contaminated soils. To achieve the maximum possible ecological effect, it seems good to combine several methods, which differ in their working principles, but have the same ultimate goal: biodegradation of pesticides using resistant microorganisms and phytoremediation with hyperaccumulator plants with the possible involvement of phytoextraction effectors to increase the removal of pesticides from the soil.</p> <p>In the case of the Ukrainian forest steppe with its considerable reserves of black soils, the most appropriate method, from our point of view, is a complex method based mainly on biodegradation of pesticides with the use of resistant microorganisms and phytoremediation with hyperaccumulator plants with the possible involvement of phytoextraction effectors and growth stimulators to increase the removal of pesticides from the soil, in particular by means of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in combination with such plants as beans, sunflowers, sage, etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. Petruk, T. Yakovyshina Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THE USE OF THE MISCANTHUS ‘RAW MATERIAL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SOLID BIOFUEL <p>Today's most urgent question for Ukraine is the search for non-traditional renewable energy sources, among which energetic plants deserve special attention, which are the main carbon dioxide absorbent, form high yields of biomass, which could be used for energy purposes for biofuel production. Energy crops are plants that are specially cultivated for direct use as a fuel or for the production of biofuels .&nbsp; The by-products of vegetable origin (straw, sunflower husk, corn stalks, etc.), as well as specially designed plants - miskanthus, mitechgrus (gooseberry millet), willow, poplar may be the source of energy raw materials.</p> <p>The tendency of traditional fuels rising prices gives impetus to the use of solid fuel boilers on biomass not only in the private sector, but also in the municipal heat supply industry. When choosing the shape of solid biomass, it must be taken into account its value and availability in the region, as well as technical availability of solutions and equipment for its combustion.</p> <p>This paper presents the results of experimental studies of crushed miskanthus filtration drying dynamics. The main technical characteristics (bulk density, porosity, equivalent diameter) of crushed miskanthus are given. The dependence of the drying rate of crushed miskanthus on its humidity is shown and the dependence of filtration drying on the technological parameters of the heat agent and the height of the material layer is analyzed. It is shown that the rate of filtration drying in the period of full saturation of the thermal agent in the moisture vapor does not depend on the height of the crushed miskanthus layer.</p> M. Mosiuk, Yu. Mykhailiuk, L. Plaksii Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 METHOD OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY HARDENING OF SHEET METAL PARTS BY ELECTROEROSIVE ALLOYING WITH A GRAPHITE ELECTRODE <p>The technical solution is presented in article. It is related to field of mechanical engineering and machine repair, in particular to environmentally friendly restoration and simultaneous hardening, by cementation electroerosive alloying (CEEA) with graphite electrode of sheet steel parts. The method of environmentally hardening of sheet metal parts by the CEEA involved hardening and tempering. At the first stage, the steel part is heated to the hardening temperature of the steel from which it is made, followed air or oil cooling, and at the second stage, the part after alloying on the first stage is heated to tempering temperature, followed air cooling. For heated to temperature of hardening and tempering at CEEA of sheet metal surfaces parts with a 1.0 to 10 mm thickness used a discharge energy of 4.6-6.8 J and a productivity of 0.2-3.0 cm<sup>2</sup> / min. For uniform distribution cross section microhardness after hardening in air CEEA is carried out on both sides of the part. The application of the method is accompanied by a significant reduction of costs on electricity and time for heat treatment, the absence of distortion and deformation, hence the need for additional machining for eliminate deviations of shape workpiece after heat treatment, using simple and environmentally friendly equipment.</p> V. Tarelnyk, О, Haponova, B. Sarzhanov Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ANALYSIS OF EXISTING EU REGULATIONS IN COMPARISON WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF UKRAINIAN LEGISLATION IN THE FIELD OF NOISE LOAD <p>Due to the rapid growth of the population of large cities, anthropogenic impact on the environment is increasing. Noise is one of the types of man-made pollution of the urban environment, as the number of sources of linear and stationary noise is constantly increasing, especially in urban areas. Noise pollution in Europe is equated with other major environmental problems: emissions of pollutants, deforestation or recycling - a significant share of GDP is spent on noise.</p> <p>Solving such environmental problems requires effective legal regulation, economic and technological resources from the state. To this end, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of public administration in the field of environmental protection, based on the principles of sustainable urban development. An urgent task for Ukraine is to improve public administration in the field of environmental protection. The easiest way to succeed in the environment is to draw on the experience of the EU's partner countries.</p> <p>The article deals with a comparative analysis of the current legislative framework of Ukraine in comparison with the European Noise Directive. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian legislation in accordance with international standards and directives, it was found that some norms, such as measurement of noise pollution levels in residential areas, have not been revised since the last century and approved in Soviet times. An urgent problem of noise pollution in Ukrainian cities requires stricter requirements for compliance with noise pollution standards.</p> <p>Based on the analysis of the EU Noise Directive, it has been identified that the need to introduce noise pollution mapping in urban areas is a very important step for Ukraine in terms of developing and improving the environmental status of urban areas.&nbsp; On the one hand, noise maps make it possible to more effectively implement noise control methods.&nbsp; An important issue is also the provision of information to the public on the state of the acoustic living space of residential buildings, which is also recommended in Directive 2002/49 / EC.</p> А. Reshetchenko, A. Borsuk, Yu. Verheles Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES - ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF CONCEPT <p>In Ukraine, the topic of ecosystem services is new, and the definition of ecosystem services remains largely debatable. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of international and domestic experience in the definition of "ecosystem services" in order to further regulate the regulatory environment, to substantiate complex methods and systematic practices of economic assessment of ecosystem services.</p> <p>According to the existing ecosystem services classification proposed in the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Program (2005), services provided by ecosystems can fall into one of four broad categories, which to some extent coincide with the functions of natural capital and include: providing, regulating and cultural services that directly affect people, and support services necessary to preserve other services. " The definitions used in the scientific literature to characterize particular aspects of ecosystem services, in particular ecosystem processes, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, benefits, and investments in ecosystem services, are discussed in the article. The scheme of conceptual relations between key terms is presented.</p> <p>As a result of the analysis of the literature, acceptable principles for the evaluation of ecosystem services and the classification of ecosystem services are substantiated. Ecosystem services include: providing services, that is, benefits that ecosystems provide (food, fresh water, wood, genetic resources, biochemical compounds, etc.); regulatory services, that is, benefits derived from the regulation of ecosystem processes (eg climate regulation, water management, water treatment, etc.); cultural services, ie intangible benefits that people receive from ecosystems (spiritual and religious, aesthetic, educational services, recreation and ecotourism, cultural heritage, etc.); as well as the support services required to preserve and operate all other ecosystem services (eg soil formation, nutrient cycling, photosynthesis, water cycle).</p> <p>Research findings can be used to scientifically justify assessments of ecosystem services in Ukraine with a view to further implementing European environmental law.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> L. Arkhypova, M. Prykhodko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Implementation of the indicators of the activity of soil enzymes in the calculation of optimum doses of agents substrates in developing new ways of bioremediation of soil contaminated by oil and petroleum products <p>The correlation between the biological activity of soils has been proved, which should be expressed both by the activity index of catalase enzyme and state of the enzymological soil complex as a whole under the conditions of natural background and in soils contaminated by petroleum products. It has been discovered that the application of any nutritious substrate in the contaminated soil affects the increase in the enzyme activity index, which proves the growth of the microbial population, and intoxication processes of the polluted environment due to the biological degradation of the pollutant. Based on the results of laboratory studies, it has been found reasonable to use a test substrate for bioremediation, which is obtained by mixing the equal weight parts of separate biohumus substrates. In this case, not only the greatest convergence of the final activity index of catalase enzyme with the background and the highest degree of biodegradation are observed, but also the decrease in time before the catalase activity index stabilizes, which corresponds to the final stage of the microbial biomass succession in the soil. Based on the results of scientific literature analysis and long-term experiments, the optimum application dose has been selected for the recommended substrate type. The authors have developed a new approach to applying and adjusting the doses of active agents-substrates in the bioremediation process of oil- contaminated lands which uses the biological activity indexes in the soil. This helps to take into account the self-recovering capacity of soil, its orientation and natural provision of the recovering area with necessary conditions for the effective biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds. The technological process of recovery has been simplified, which allows using active components more rationally and accelerating the practical implementation in specific contaminated areas.</p> М. Mykytsei, T. Kundelska Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 LAND AND HUMAN HISTORY PARK – THE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOURIST CENTER OF CARPATHIANS <p>The development of the tourism and recreation industry requires the inclusion in its sphere not only of new territories with interesting landscapes for tourists, but also of new content topics, expansion of the cognitive range in various fields of socio-economic activity in Carpathian region to the famous Ice Age Park in the village. Starunja joins a new eco-tourist site - Earth and Human History Park near the village the foothills of the Bohorodchany district of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. Here, at the site of 6 hectares, there is an exhibition of sculptures, stands, models, billboards, natural and computer models that clearly, scientifically substantiates the development of the Earth against the backdrop of the 13.7 billion years of the description of the Universe as a result of the Big Bang, the creation of galaxies, The solar system with planets, their moons, asteroids, meteorites, comets, including the Earth 4.567 billion years ago. The following are the main stages of the development of our planet, which passed four aeons - Hadesian (4,567-4,0 billion years ago), Archean (4,0-2,0), Proterozoic (2,0-0,56) and Phanerozoic (560 million years ago). The last aeon examines in detail the geological history of the Paleozoic (560-252 million years ago) era with the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, coal and Permian periods, Mesozoic (252-65) era with the Triassic, Jurassic, Jurassic 65-present) era with Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary periods.</p> <p>Much attention is paid to the description of the appearance and lifestyle of exotic inhabitants of the Earth - prokaryotes, archeocytes, trilobites, dinosaurs, giparions, mammons, rhinos and more. The history of the appearance and development of an ancient person - from Australopithecus, a person of skillful, erect, peticanthropus, Neanderthal man to Cromanian - scientist is covered in detail.</p> O. Adamenko, D. Zorin, T. Belz Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL TOURISM IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE USING RESOURCE IN MOUNTAINOUS UNITED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VYTVYTSA UNITED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITY OF IVANO- FRANKIVSK REGION) <p>The article deals with the issues of planning local development of united territorial communities based on the principles of sustainable (balanced) development. Today, scientists have identified the features of planning and implementation of strategies for the development of united territorial communities, but there is practically no scientific substantiation of the directions of practical implementation of plans and features of community development on the basis of sustainable resource use. For most of the mountainous united territorial communities of the region, the tourism industry, as one of the five state priorities, is a promising area of ​​economic development. Therefore, as part of their formation, it is necessary to evaluate the resource base of socio-economic development, including the assessment of tourism potential. As a result of the decentralization process, 52 communities are planned to be formed in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, more than 30 ones have been formed so far. There are significant territorial differences in the distribution and utilization of the available communities resource potential. On the example of the Vitvitsky United Territorial Community, as the most problematic in terms of opportunities for effective autonomous development, the principles of sustainable nature management were developed and the preconditions for the development of recreational tourism were analyzed. The prospects for the development of certain types of recreational tourism, including spa and recreation, the possibility of using natural waters with high iron content for recreational purpose have been grounded. The type of some springs containing ferric water (with an iron concentration exceeding 10 mg/m<sup>3 </sup>has been revealed. In all tested surface and groundwater samples the excess iron content was determined from 2 to 4,3 times. The analysis of the majority of water samples showed that one third of the total iron content in the samples migrates in the trivalent state (Fe<sup>3+) </sup>in the form of a colloidal - dispersed phase. Thus, major part of it (about 66%) is transported in the form of divalent iron (Fe <sup>2+</sup>) with organic fulva and humic acids. In general, this corresponds to the overall picture of iron migration in the Carpathian region. Water containing iron in bivalent form has valuable medicinal properties. The necessity to determine the level of acid-base (pH) and redox (Eh) of selected water samples is substantiated. The value of these indicators give great informativity in the study of natural waters for recreational application. In the second the study of iron migration forms was indicated.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> united territorial communities (UTC), decentralization, sustainable development of communities, recreational tourism, ferric water, ferrous water.</p> Ya. Korobeynukova, O. Melnyk Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Environmental Pollution:Factors and Indicators of Ecological Safety of the Refinery <p>The article provides the quantitative and qualitative description of the pollution of atmosphere with emissions and of hydrosphere with sewage and man-made wastes in Ukraine, in particular in Ivano-</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Frankivsk oblast, as they are the main factors of environmental pollution in the region. Three significant environmental hazards are&nbsp; described.&nbsp; Sewage&nbsp; treatment&nbsp; in&nbsp; Ivano-Frankivsk&nbsp; oblast&nbsp; produces&nbsp; about&nbsp; 50 mln. m<sup>3</sup> of sludge per year. Solid wastes in the form of sludges, related primarily to the operation of mining, power and petrochemical enterprises, occupy large areas. Up to 10% of them are utilized and much less (up to 1%) are processed into useful products. The sludge from oil refinery is mainly accumulated in sludge pits and partially removed to the dump for disposal. It has been shown that sewage treatment from oil refinery has the greatest impact on the reduction in environmental pollution, since the determined contamination factor of hydrosphere is the maximum among the contamination factors of atmosphere and pedosphere. The authors have provided the algorithm for calculating the integrated environmental safety index of an enterprise (IESIE) based on the data processing for PJSC “Naftokhimik Prykarpattia” and contamination factors. In order to calculate this index it is necessary to take into account the production activity of the enterprise for a certain period of time and the costs on environmental needs based on the waste treatment and disposal technologies. IESIE for the enterprise has been gradually rising for 3 years, which indicates the improvement of the environment. The major total costs on the oil refinery’s environmental measures have increased approximately by 47% due to the financing of water treatment measures.</p> M. Bohuslavets, L. Cheliadyn, D. Kryka Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Spatial constraints analysis in environmental impact assessment of oil and gas production <p>The paper studies the main types of environmental spatial constraints of the oil and gas production which should be taken into consideration in the environmental impact assessment. The normative and regulatory framework of spatial constraints in the oil and gas production areas has been analyzed, in particular, the sanitary protection zones of production facilities, sanitary protection zones of water supply intakes, protected shoreline belts of water streams and reservoirs, and nature reserve fund areas.</p> <p>The authors have shown the need to single out the natural landscape areas within the areas with spatial constraints – forests, ravine forests, steppe vegetation on the slopes and at the bottoms of washes, flood meadows, wetlands, and forest belts – in view of their significance in terms of providing ecosystem services and sustaining biodiversity.</p> <p>Using the geoinformational technologies, in particular, the geospatial analysis tools, and Svyrydivske gas-condensate field as an example, the authors have delineated the territories with spatial constraints according to the analyzed types, assessed their areas and spatial distribution. Based on the analysis results, the largest territory – 28% of the production field – is occupied by the areas with natural vegetation (forests, steppe vegetation in washes and wetlands), and the smallest territory (2%) – by the protected shoreline belts of water streams. The nature reserve fund areas take 5% of the field area. The total area of the territories with spatial constraints of the oil and gas production within Svyrydivske gas- condensate field is 87 km<sup>2</sup>, which makes up 70% of the total field area.</p> <p>The approaches to defining and analyzing the environmental spatial constraints, used in the study, are recommended to be used in the environmental impact assessment of the oil and gas production.</p> D. Diadin, O. Senko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE AMBITANT OF THE AMBER ON THE SOIL WATER STATE <p>The work is devoted to the study of ecological features of groundwater in the area around Burshtyn TPP. Considering the problem of further storage of ash waste from the thermal power plant, a number of alternatives have been proposed to deal with such environmentally hazardous industrial wastes. A detailed description of the current state of groundwater is presented, as one of the significant environments affected by the existing ash dump and its likely further impact. Based on previously conducted hydrogeological studies, the calculations on the effects on soil water according to soil filtration characteristics are presented in the paper. The filtration-capacity coefficients of soils distributed within the project sites were found to be significantly higher than required by sanitary standards. It is calculated that the arrangement of the clay screen is not economically feasible, and the construction of the screen made of plastic film should be carried out on a sand pad to prevent it from breaking. But even in this case, the hydrogeological complexes of the territories will not be fully protected, so besides the construction of the anti-filtration screen and the channel of enlightened water, there is a need to build an anti-filtration channel.</p> <p>To determine the direction of groundwater flow and to prevent their contamination, a graphical simulation of the filtration flow of a gravel-pebble horizon is presented in the paper.</p> Ya. Adamenko Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 MONITORING OF SOIL ROOF IN THE FIELD OF DEPOSITS <p>Monitoring can be considered one of the main methods of solving the problem of pedosphere pollution, because the necessary information to overcome the problems can be obtained only through the large-scale specific study. At present, there are some monitoring programs aimed at solving the problems, but they are not effective enough and, therefore, cannot completely fulfill their tasks.</p> <p>The current problems of land monitoring in Ukraine are primarily related to its organization, which could provide the comprehensive and systematic accounting and assessment of the status of land in order to protect and improve the quality of agricultural soils. There is a need to create a permanent system of accounting, observation, comparison, measurement, inventory and forecasting of the ecological status of lands with the detection and registration of changes against the background of natural and anthropogenic processes, in the continuous functioning of the ecological monitoring service of land. Analyzing the studies in the field of monitoring the oil-contaminated soil on the territory of oil and gas fields, it becomes necessary to develop the new methods of ecological monitoring of the soil of depleted oil and gas fields in order to study the problem of pedosphere contamination.</p> <p>The development results of a new method of environmental soil monitoring in depleted oil and gas fields are described. The method allows obtaining adequate information on the studied area. An important role in the new monitoring scheme is played by the method of locating soil sampling points, the benefits of which are the system’s flexibility in relation to the studied territory and complexity of research that does not necessarily depend on the size of the studied area. The proposed schemes introduce a new view of monitoring the soil, which is subjected to the heavy anthropogenic impact of the mining industry. The analyzed schemes help to develop new reclamation methods of the soil located in the depleted oil and gas fields, which is contaminated with hydrocarbons and drilling waste.</p> T. Kachala, S. Kachala Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Prerequisite of use of basin principle of ecological and geological risk of the developing of landslide processes within the Prut river <p>The study of ecological and geological risks within the administrative complexes does not give a clear understanding of the impact of landslides on the environment and economic activity. The use of geoinformation technologies for risks modeling greatly simplifies the identification of local zones of landslide development and their ecological-geological assessment. A new GIS-based approach for basin-based risk assessment of individual areas is proposed. A mapping and attribution database of geological, geomorphological and landscape factors has been formed. This allowed for spatial analysis of landslide activity within individual sub-basins of the Prut River Basin, based on the spatial distribution of landslides and their localization in the river network. Statistical analysis of the data was performed, which allowed to substantiate the choice of factor characteristics for the assessment of ecological and geological risks. The integral index is calculated and the ecological-geological risk assessment is calculated at each point of occurrence with interpolation within the Prut River sub-pool. A mapping model of relief, a map of probabilities of activation and development of landslides based on a complex selection of natural and man-made factors and a map of ecological and geological risks of development of landslides within the sub-pool of the Prut River are constructed. The simulation results show that the basin principle of risk assessment significantly identifies areas with the highest probability of negative impact on the population living within sub-basins. The highest risk is observed in the areas of the upper part of the Prut basin, areas with active economic activity, with sub-pool distribution, which categorically confirms the basic morphometric characteristics of the sub-pool, its geology and geomorphology as a potentially dangerous zone for the development and activation of landslides.</p> D. Kasiyanchuk, M. Shymoniuk Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Sun, 23 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200 A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE NATURAL TECHNOGENIC IMPACT ON THE HYDROECOSYSTEM <p>The development of the world economy has led to an unprecedented scale of negative impact on the biosphere. There was a conflict between the growing needs of the world community and the limited capacity of the biosphere to meet them. The harmonious development of nature and technology is possible only because of a scientifically sound compromise between the components of the natural environment and human social and economic activity. To date, the only acceptable variant of the progressive movement of mankind is movement within the framework of sustainable development.</p> <p>The implementation of the concept of harmonious development requires the development of scientific and technical substantiation and the creation of a system of environmental support and support for economic activity. Environmental support should be understood as a system of continuous control, analysis and purposeful impact on conditions, factors and characteristics that affect natural-technogenic risk indicators in order to establish, maintain and maintain the required level of environmental safety in the design, production, operation, and utilization of technical objects.</p> <p>The main causes of flooding on the rivers of the Carpathian region are natural and climatic features. Flood formation here occurs by a sharp rise in water levels in rivers due to prolonged heavy rainfall, which causes flooding of the territories of settlements, industrial sites and causes significant economic losses. Analysis of previous studies shows that work performed in this field did not typically cover the full range of components required and do not take into account their interrelation. The main insufficiently studied aspects of the existing research are insufficient implementation of ecosystem approach to solving problems of complex definition and forecasting of hydroecological danger, creation of conditions for harmonious functioning of hydroecosystem, unexamined need to take into account climatic factors in the study of hydroecological hazards, objects. The combination of these factors leads to disruption of the hydro-ecosystem and ineffective risk management. The study of climatic factors, the patterns of their change, as well as their impact on the status of water bodies and the formation of runoff of the Carpathian region rivers is a key area of research. This issue requires analysis of the methods of study of hydroecosystems by the basin approach, the selection of the main elements that influence the formation of hydro-environmental hazards, and the creation of a method for determining the natural-technogenic impact.</p> S. Kachala, Taras Kachala Copyright (c) 2020 Ecological Safety and Balanced Use of Resources Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0200